The following pages deal with various aspects of royalty.

Although royalty is not my primary interest, I now have a number of pages touching upon the subject. This is not intended to be an exhaustive overview of royalty-related matters, however.


General Specific royal families

Succession laws

Other Resources on the Web


Genealogic Resources

There are many, many sites devoted to royal genealogies. Here are two that I find very useful:

  • Paul Theroff's pages
    particularly handy is his Internet Gotha which covers the genealogies of Gotha families since about 1800
  • Miroslav Marek's genealogy page is more extensive, stretching back further in time, and well cross-linked across families
  • WW-Person searchable database of the European upper nobility
A few other sites (with apologies to those I don't mention):

Chronological Resources

Use at your own risk.

Resources on Styles

Legal Resources

Constitutional Law

International law

International law: documents on Gallica

The French National Library's server Gallica contains a number of texts of treaties and other diplomatic documents in scanned-image PDF format (you will need the free Acrobat reader). Download times can be long, and your browser may crash at times. Here are some collections I have found useful:

Civil Law

Canon Law

Roman Law

Sometimes useful to have on hand.


Printed sources for treaties and constitutional documents before 1914

There are many contemporary collections of constitutional texts and international treaties. It is more difficult to get a hold of constitutions of states that have disappeared. Here are some sources.

  • British and Foreign State Papers.
    This annual publication of the British foreign office began in 1812 and ended in 1977. It contains documents that are useful for British foreign policy, including many treatises and constitutions of foreign states, as well as official statements and declarations. Texts are often translated from the original language into either French or English.

    An antecedent is the State Papers section of the Annual Register, which begins in 1758. The years 1758-78 are available online at the Internet Library of Early Journals (note: they ceased to be available in 2004, for unexplained reasons.)

  • Dufau, Pierre-Armand, Jean-Baptiste Duvergier and J. Guadet: Collection des constitutions, chartes et lois fondamentales des peuples de L'Europe et des deux Amériques : avec des précis offrant l'histoire des libertés et des institutions politiques chez les nations modernes. Paris : J.L. Chanson, 1821-1823. 6 volumes.

    • Anton Faber: Europäische Staats-Cantzley. Frankfurt, 1697-1760 (115 vols.)
    • Anton Faber: neue europäische Staats-Canzley, welche die wichtigsten öffentlichen Angelegenheiten, vornehmlich des deutschen Reiches in sich fasset . Ulm, Frankfurt, Leipzig, 1761-82. (vols. 1-30, 1761-72; neue Folge 1-25, 1772-82).
    • Johann August Reuss: Teutschen Staatskanzley nebst Deduktions- und Urkundensammlung . Ulm, 1783-1801.

  • Georg Friedrich de Martens (d. 1821) began a series that was continued after his death by his nephew Karl de Martens and then other editors (Friedrich Saalfeld, Friedrich Murhard, Karl Murhard, J. Pinhas, Karl Friedrich Lucian Samwer, Julius Hopf, Heinrich Triepel).
    • Recueil des principaux traités d'alliance, de paix, de trêve (Göttingen, J. C. Dietrich, 1797-1801, 7 vols; Supplement, 1802, 2 vols.).
    • Nouveau recueil de traités d'alliance, de paix, de trève... et de plusieurs autres actes servant à la connaissance des relations étrangères des puissances... de l'Europe... depuis 1808 jusqu'à présent (Göttingen, J. C. Dietrich, 1817-41, 16 vols; Nouveaux Suppléments, 1839-42, 3 vols.).
    • Nouveau recueil général de traités, conventions et autres transactions remarquables, servant à la connaissance des relations étrangères des puissances et états dans leurs rapports mutuels. (Göttingen, J. C. Dietrich, 1843-75, 20 vols).
    • Nouveau recueil général de traités et autres actes relatifs aux rapports de droit international . 2e série.a (Göttingen, Dieterich, 1876-1908, 35 vols.)
    • Nouveau recueil général de traités et autres actes relatifs aux rapports de droit international. 3e série. (Leipzig, Dieterich, 1909-44, 44 vols.).

  • Consolidated Treaty Series (CTS), edited by Clive Parry (231 volumes).
    This mammoth collection reproduces international treaties between 1648 and 1920, in facsimile from other printed collections (such as Dumont, Martens, Faber, etc).

  • Pölitz, Karl Heinrich Ludwig: Die europäischen Verfassungen seit dem Jahre 1789 bis auf die neueste Zeit : mit geschichtlichen Erläuterungen und Einleitungen . Leipzig : F.A. Brockhaus, 1832-1833.
    The first edition, published anonymously, was titled: Die Constitutionen der europäischen Staaten seit den letzten 25 Jahren (1816-24). The 4 volumes contain:
    1. Die gesammten Verfassungen des teutschen Staatenbundes
    2. Die Verfassungen Frankreichs, der Niederlande, Belgiens, Spaniens, Portugals, der italienischen Staaten und der Ionischen Inseln
    3. Die Verfassungen Polens, der freien Stadt Cracau, der Königreiche Galizien und Lodomerien, Schwedens, Norwegens, der Schweiz und Griechenlands
    4. Die Verfassungen des teutschen Staatenbundes seit dem Jahre 1833 (published 1847).

  • Posener, Paul: Die staatsverfassungen des Erdballs; unter Mitwirkung von Gelehrten und Staatsmännern. Charlottenburg, Fichtner, 1909. 1435 p.
    Complete collection of the constitutions in force at the time of publication, including each German state.

From 1907 to 1914 a series of volumes on the public law of countries was published in Tübingen by the publisher J. C. B. Mohr (Das öffentliche recht der gegenwart). They are very good references for laws of succession and constitutional questions in general. The fact that they were published just before World War I makes them a good source for the state of public law in German states right before the monarchies disappeared. Here is a list of the volumes:

  1. German Empire by Paul Laband and Otto Mayer (1907)
  2. Württemberg by Karl Göz (1908)
  3. International law by Emanuel Ullmann (1908)
  4. Braunschweig by Albert Rhamm (1908)
  5. Baden by Ernst Walz (1909)
  6. France (constitutional) by André Lebon (1909)
  7. ...
  8. Greece by Nikolaus Saripolos (1909)
  9. Saxony by Otto Mayer (1909)
  10. Austria by Josef Ulbrich (1909)
  11. Luxemburg by Paul Eyschen (1910)
  12. USA by Ernst Freund (1911)
  13. Norway by Bredo Henrik Munthe af Morgenstierne (1911)
  14. Oldenburg by Walther Schücking (1911)
  15. Hungary (constitutional) by Heinrich Marczali (1911)
  16. Hungary (administrative) by Desider Márkus (1912)
  17. Russia by Wiatscheslaw Gribowski (1912)
  18. Finland by Rafael Erich (1912)
  19. Hesse-Darmstadt by Wilhelm van Calker (1913)
  20. Denmark by C. Goos and Henrik Hansen (1913)
  21. Bavaria (constitutional) by Max von Seydel (1913)
  22. Bavaria (administrative) by Max von Seydel (1913)
  23. France (administrative) by Gaston Jèze (1913)
  24. Spain by Adolfo Posada (1914)
  25. United Kingdom by Julius Hatschek (1914)
  26. Alsace-Lorraine by Oscar Fischbach (1914)
  27. Bremen and Lübeck by Johannes Bollmann (1914)

For the German states there are several sources, beyond those listed above:

  • Stoerk, Felix: Handbuch der deutschen Verfassungen : die Verfassungsgesetze des Deutschen Reiches und seiner Bundesstaaten nach dem gegenwärtigen Gesetzesstande . Leipzig : Duncker & Humblot, 1884. 2nd edition: 1913.
  • Binding, Karl: Deutsche staatsgrundgesetze in diplomatisch genauem abdrucke. Leipzig, W. Engelmann, 1897-1906.
    Contains: Bund of 1867, Empire of 1871, confederation of the Rhine of 1806, German confederation of 1815; Prussia, Bavaria, Saxony, Wurttemberg, Baden, Hesse-Darmstadt, Lübeck, Bremen and Hamburg.

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François Velde