Royal styles and titles: Files from the UK National Archives
introduction to the files cast of characters styles and titles of the British royal family

HO 45/13725


440302

(formerly 434190/2)

December 1922
Home Office

Honours.
Applications for Royal Licenses to use Foreign titles.

Abstract of precedents.

Minutes

This list consolidates and brings up to date the two lists hitherto in use.

Note and Lay by. AJE. 9/12/22

See additional cases within.


440302/2


14.5.27
HO

Honours.
British subjects who have received Royal License to use foreign title.
Copy letter to Mr A. Hertslet.

Minutes

The Lord Chancellor about a year ago asked whether we could supply him with a complete list of British subjects who were entitled to use foreign titles in England.  He was given a list of all grants since 1893 but prior to that date the H.O. have no information.  The College of Arms should have a Roll of all grants; they have not yet got this in any handy form and Mr. Butler, to whom I spoke, explained that it would take some time to prepare one.  He undertook to do this and I have reminded him at intervals during the past nine months but without results. This is not a moment I think at which we can press the Heralds College further as they are much occupied with other matters.  I have explained the position to Mr. Hertslet and I think the matter may drop for the time being.
Lay by.
H A D
27/2/28
nothing further 1 Dec 1928
registered

I went to the College of Arms a day or two ago and had a long talk with Mr. Butler there on this subject.  The College has a complete record of all these grants going back to Stuart times with very elaborate and well kept indices of the original foreign Letters Patent in each case together with a copy of the Royal Warrant issued here, both documents being in many cases beautifully illuminated.  No doubt all this explains to some extent the College's high feees in respect of such licences, which I understand amount to about fifty guineas. Mr. Butler thinks he will be able to let us have a complete list of grants in the course of a month or so and I have written to him as within.  Incidentally, I learnt that a limitation to heirs general in an Austrian patent is not to be construed in the English sense.  The Austrian government recently had some correspondence with the College of Arms on the subject and have stated that in Austria the expression is construed as referring only to a male heir.
HRD
6/2/29
Mr Eagleston has seen this.

I have reminded Mr Butler but he says he will not be able to complete the list for some time, though it is well in hand.
HRD
10/7/29

440302/3


21.10.29
College of Arms (Portcullis)

Honours
Royal  Licences for Foreign titles

Fds list  from the earliest date to 1846, will send remainder as soon as possible.

Minutes

This long-delayed list takes us up to 1846 and will be useful.  Mr. Butler is continuing his researches and promises a further list later on.  Our records are complete from 1892 onwards but it would be a great thing to get a list for the period between 1846 to 1892.

We have no record of the foreign titles in use in the Free State such as Count O'Kelly etc. and I have written to Ulster as within asking whether he can supply us with information.
HRD
24.10.29

Mr Butler now sends a further list of six licences issued between 1874 and 1893.  It seems extraordinary that there were no licenses between 1846 and 1874 and I have written to Mr. Butler as within.
HRD
22.1.30

Note by Ulster within, no licences are recorded in his office for foreign titles in Ireland
HRD 22/1

See farther correspondence with Mr. Butler within. The  list is now as complete as we are likely to get it and Ulster tells us that no licence to use a foreign title is recorded at Dublin Castle. Mr.Butler's lists enumerate 34 licences  issued between 1644 and 1893 but some of the  titles must be extinct  -  Baron de Goldsmid and da Palmeira certainly so, while the licences to Baron de Worms and the 1890 Von Schroder barony have been revoked.  This reduces the extant licences on Mr.Butler's lists to 31. Our records from 1896 to the present day show grants of 12  licences but of the 12 Baron de Bush is dead so the licence is no longer valid, while Baron Boxall, Baron de Forest, Baron Nugent, Count Gurowski and Baron Schroder had their licences revoked by the Royal Warrant of 1920.  So far therefore as this list is concerned only six titles remain valid Baron de Teissier, Count Riccardi-Cubitt, Count de Bury, Baron Bentinck, Baron de Rutzen, and marquis d'Hautpoul; that is to say there are certainly not more than 37 valid licences extant and the number is probably considerably less.  Would  it not be a useful thing now to  compile a list  of extant  licences with similar particulars and notes to those  in our  current   list. This would be easy  to  refer to and would be useful to the Lord Chamberlain too.

The  whole question therefore of these licenses is a very small one. In modern times they have only been granted in exceptional circumstances and it might well be considered whether it would not be an excellent thing if The King decided that there should be no more grants in any circumstances whatever.  This would obviate any question of recognising papal titles or of re-considering the question of the six enemy aliens who relinquished their titles during the War, while such a decision would dispose once and for all of the various claims which are put  forward from time to  time.
H.R.D. 5/2/30

The Scottish Office told me that Lyon had no record in his office of any royal licence being granted for a foreign title.   Ulster informed us that he too had no recorded licence since 1795 but H.O. papers (224637/3) [ = HO 45/12576; Count Magawly-Cerati de Calry: recognition of Italian title, 1912-1927] show that in 1765 a royal licence was given to Count D'Alton and certain of his relations and I have asked Ulster to search his records prior to 1795.

See ./4  HRD 12/2

Lay by ./4






Applications for Royal Licence for the use of a Foreign title.

Papal titles.     The following list does not include such cases.  Papal titles are not recognised in the United Kingdom on the ground that the Pope not being an independent Sovereign has no power to confer titles and orders.  See 196,853 [ =HO 45/10622/196853; W. H. F. Garratt, 1910] , 214,306 [ = HO 45/10939/214306], 216,252 [ = HO 45/10665/216252; Edmond de la Poer and George Noble Plunkett, 1911], 243,207 [ =HO 45/10710/243207; P. B. Malone, permission to accept knighthood, refused, 1913] and 277,722 [ = ?].

Ireland.  For a case of Royal and Vice-Regal Warrants authorising the use in Ireland of a foreign title see 224,637 [ = HO 45/12576].

Note.     In the cases marked x and in that of the Barony of Worms (licence granted in 1874) the licences granted were revoked by Royal Warrant of 17th January, 1920, during the European War.

Cases dealt with down to 1893.

For 30 years or so prior to 1892,  the practice in dealing with these applications was for the Home Office not to inquire into the reason why a Foreign Monarch chose to grant a title to an Englishman but to issue a licence on production of evidence of British nationality and of documents establishing the applicant's right to the title (B.14,637/6 [ = HO 144/351/B14637; Lowenstein, baron (Portugal), refused, 1893]).

In 1893 Sir E. Pemberton suggested that,  in order to avoid the difficulty of a Home Office inquiry into each case, the Home Office and Foreign Office should, with the Queen's approval, draw up a code of regulations which might be applied to all petitions for licences but it was considered undesirable to make a fresh departure on the case under review (Baron de Kusel B.12,651 [ = HO 144/340/B12651; Lt. S. S. Kusel, Baron (Italy), permitted 1893]).

In September, 1893, the matter was again considered on the case of Lowenstein (B.14,637/6) and the Queen then approved the following rule drawn up by Mr. Asquith :-
"In future the rule is to be that all applications for the Royal licence to use Foreign titles in this country are to be refused.  There may be special cases of an exceptional kind in which the Queen may be properly advised to relax the rule, but they will probably be of very rare occurrence and can be dealt with as they arise".

This rule was confirmed by king Edward VII in 1901 (see B33841 [ = HO 45/10209/B33841]) and by King George V in 1911 (see 184624 [ = HO 45/10591/184624])

Cases arising since 1893.


H.O. number and year. Description of title. Whether granted or refused. Observations.
 1896
B.20,857
[HO 144/391/B20857]
Baron de Bush Granted. Limited to the grantee.
 
A Barony of the Duchy of Saxe-Goburg and Gotha granted in 1886.  Exception made to rule of 1893 at special desire of Queen Victoria.
1900.
B.32,587.
[HO 45/19622]
* Baron Boxall Granted. Limited to the grantee and the heirs male of his body, upon whom the title should descend. A barony of the Duchy of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha granted in 1900.  This privilege was granted by  Queen Victoria to Baron Boxall direct and the Home Office knew nothing of it until the formal notification  of Her Majesty's Pleasure was received from the Prime Minister, no reasons being stated for the grant.
1900.
B.32,440.
[HO 144/969/B32440]
* Baron de Forest. Granted. Limited to the grantee. A barony of the Austrian Empire granted in 1899. Permission given, on the occasion of Baron de Forest's naturalization, by direct command of Queen Victoria.  No reasons stated for the grant.
1901.
B.33,841.
[HO 45/10209/B33841]
Baron Ward. Not proceeded with. King Edward confirmed rule of Queen Victoria and decided that all applications for licences should be sent to Garter to investigate who would then give his opinion for transmission to the King.
1901.
B.21,684.
[HO 45/10459/B21684]
Viscount de Horncastle. Refused. Title conferred by King of Portugal in 1896.  It was ascertained that the application was unknown in Portugal and that the title was probably one of many indiscriminately distributed to foreigners at the time, generally to the highest bidder.
1906.
B.23599.
[HO 45/10159/B23599]
Baron de Teissier. Granted. Limited to grantee and heirs male of his body to whom the title should descend. Barony of the Kingdom of France created in 1819. It was alleged but not proved that the title was originally granted  with the permission of the Prince Regent. Submitted by the H.O. without recommendation King Edward decided that as the was granted so long ago as 1819 permission to use  it might he given.
1906.
B23.421.
[HO 45/10311/123421]
Count Riccardo- Cubitt. Granted.Limited to petitioner and his wife. petitioner's wife was the heiress of the ancient and famous Florentine family of Riccardi and in 1902 the title was specially granted by the King of Italy to petitioner. Submitted by H.O. without recommendation.
1906.
140,276.
[HO 45/12535]
Baroness de Goldsmid. Refused. Title conferred on petitioner for her life only. In 1906 by king of Portugal. In view of this limitation and of her expressed intention "to revive the old family honours for her son to inherit later" S.of S. made no recommendation.
1906.
143,007.
[HO 45/10346/143007]
Marquis de Misa. Refused. Spanish title conferred on applicant's father in 1889. No good grounds for issue of licence shown. H.O. submitted case to H.M. without recommendation.
1908.
164,826.
[HO 45/10553/164826]
* Baron Nugent. Granted.Limited to grantee and heirs male of his body in succession upon whom the title should descend. A barony of the Austrian Empire granted in 1869 for distinguished military services rendered by the family of Nugent. Garter recommended the case for favourable consideration and H.O. submitted it with the suggestion that H.M. might wish to sanction it.
1910.
197,270.
[HO 45/10622/197270]
Count de Bury. Granted.Limited to grantee and heirs male of his body in succession upon whom the title should descend. An Austrian title granted by Maria Theresa in 1753 and confirmed by the King of Holland in 1822.  Applicant was a Captain in the R.A. employed in the Royal Military College of Canada. Submitted by H.O. with a favourable recommendation in view of the antiquity of the title.
1911.
184,624.
[HO 45/10591/184624; Mr. T. G. Sandeman]
Baron de Sandeman. Refused. Portuguese barony conferred on petitioner in 1909 as a revival of an extinct title granted to his uncle. King George adopted the rule laid down by Queen Victoria and confirmed by King Edward.
1911.
208,659.
[HO 45/12224]
Baron Bentinck. Granted.  Limited to grantee and heirs male of his body in order of primogeniture upon whom the title should descend. Barony of the Netherlands granted in 1819 (but described as a confirmation of an old title).   Applicant was a Major in the Rifle Brigade, D.S.O. and Asst. Secretary to the High Commissioner for South-Africa. Submitted by H.O. with a favourable recommendation in view of the services of the applicant and his family.
1911.
211,885.
[HO 45/12943; Major Dudley Melchior Beaumont von Gurowski]
* Count von Gurowski. Granted.    Limited to grantee and heirs male of his body in succession upon whom title may descend. A title conferred by the King of Prussia in 1787 upon an ancestor who had held a Governorship lin Poland. Submitted by H.O. with a favourable recommendation in view of the antiquity of the title.
The licence was revoked in 1920 during the War.  In 1922 H.O. discouraged an application for permission to resume the title.
1912.
B.6,824.
[HO 45/10437/B6824]
Baron William von Schroder Granted.  Limited to the grantee personally. A barony of Prussia granted by the King of Prussia in 1868 to applicant's grandfather. Applicant's father, being a younger son, had been granted in 1890 a Royal Licence to bear the title Baron before his Christian name. Applicant on his father's death being the eldest son and heir asked for the same privilege as his father.
Submitted by H.O. without recommendation.
1912.
228,535.
[HO 45/18397]
Baron Profumo. Refused. An Italian Barony conferred on applicant's great grandfather in 1843.  The applicant was an English barrister and in view of the comparative antiquity of the title the case was considered a doubtful one but S. of S. did not think it strong enough to justify a favourable recommendation.
1912.
222,229.
[HO 144/1206/222229]
Jonkheer van Haeften. Refused.
There are no details as  to the grant of the title (which is the lowest grade in Dutch nobility.  Applicant was an Officer in the Guards. No exceptional circumstances - submitted to H.M. without recommendation.
1913.
236,216.
[HO 45/10700/236216]
Count Gleichen.
The title countess of Gleichen was conferred by the Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha in 1861 on Miss Laura Seynour on her marriage to Prince Victor of Hohenlohe-Langenburg.  In 1913 it was discovered that no formal petition for the use of the title Count Gleichen had been given.  The case was, however, a very exceptional one.  The then Count Gleichen was a blood relation of the Royal Family and his title had been officially recognised on many occasions (e.g. in the Army List and "Gazette").  It was considered unnecessary to procure any further authority for the use of the title and in a Warrant of Precedence then issuing the title was inserted.
1914.
237,247.
[HO 45/10702/237247]
Marchioness de Piro.
Refused. Title Marquis conferred by Philip V of Spain in 1742 and renewed in 1870 by the Regent of Spain.  Title of Marquise granted to applicant by King of Spain on the death of her father.  No special circumstances alleged.
Note. This paper contains a memorandum as to the recognition in this country of titles officially recognised in Malta.
1918.
321,597.
[HO 144/19788]
Baron Marochetti.
Refused. Title granted by King of Sardinia in 1836  to applicant's grandfather who was a sculptor of some distinction and was employed by Queen Victoria as such.
Petitioner, a Second Lieutenant la the 11th Hussars was originally an Italian subject but became naturalised in 1916 to obtain a Commission in the British Army.  He served as an interpretor with the British Force in France from 1914 to 1916. S. of S. decided not to recommend the case as there were no exceptional considerations which would justify a departure from the rule originally made by Queen Victoria.
1918.
358,070.
[HO 45/10892/358070]
Baron de Rutzen.  Granted.   Limited to grantee and heirs male of his body upon whom the title should descend. Title granted by King of Poland in 1657.  Applicant, a boy of 9. was grandson of Sir A. de Rutzen, for many years Chief Magistrate and his father was killed in action in 1918.  H.O. recommended case  in view of antiquity of title and the services rendered by applicant's grandfather
1920.
209,485/6.
[HO 144/11453]
Count de Pret. Refused. Title granted to applicant's grandfather by King of Belgium in 1890.  Applicant was naturalised in 1912 being then a cadet at Sandhurst and at the time of the application was an officer in the 21st Lancers and A.D.C. to the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. No special circumstances: H.O. recommended that application be not granted.
1922. Baron Barnekow. H.O. decided not to recommend if application made. Mr. E.R.F. Barnekow came of a Swedish noble family of great antiquity and the Swedish Consul General formally certified that he was entitled by law to the title Baron. He enlisted in the British Army under an assumed name and fought with great courage and efficiency being awarded the M.M.   He was commissioned in 1918 and won the M.C. H.O. did not consider that his war services, though meritorious, were sufficiently outstanding to justify grant of licence and told solicitor that an application for a   licence would not be recommended.
435,534
[HO 45/11087/435534]
Count Bagienski Refused. Mr. Herbert Sharp claimed to be the senior descendant of the Bagienski family of Warsaw and Odessa.  No details were given in the application which was couched in general terms.
1923.
439,280
[HO 144/2717]
Marquis d'Hautpoul de Seyne. Granted. Limited to grantee personally. Applicant who was originally a French subject and had shortly before been naturalized was the holder of a French title dating back to the "ancien régime". H.O. made no recommendation. HM approved grant as a special case.
1925.
475,528/2
[?]
Marquis del Moral Refused Major de Bertodano inherited the title (Spanish) which had been in his family since 1765.  He served in the Matabe and South African Wars, and as a Major on the General Staff in the war of 1914-18.  The case was held not to be nearly strong enough for a grant; but as His Majesty's private secretary had written about it, it was submitted without a recommendation.  (The petition was drawn by Solicitors; Garter, on being asked for his observations, substituted a new one.   The original Petition was submitted to His Majesty and remonstrations were made to Garter)
464,986/3
[?]
Baroness von Ungern Sternberg H.O. would not recommend it application Miss Delmé-Radcliffe married in 1897 Baron von Ungern Sternberg, a German.   Her husband was killed in the war and she was re-admitted to British nationality in 1924.
403,324/6
[? see HO 405/33107]
Baron (Oscar) Gérard de Langué Refused.
Title granted by Emperor of Austria (and confirmed by Czar) during Napoleonic Wars to applicant's great grandfather. Applicant, formerly a Russian, held a British Commission during the War and was naturalised in 1920.  No special circumstances.
511,140/3
[HO 45/12831; Capt. Arthur Thomas Bernado Bignold-de-Cologan; 1927]
marques de Torrehermosa.
Refused.
Title granted to petitioner's ancestor by King of Spain (Don Carlos II) in 1671.  Petitioner served as an officer in a Territorial Regt. during the War.  Not a case for a favourable recommendation.




EXTRACT FROM: GRANTS GRANTS AND CONFIRMATIONS  ---  A.  p. 107 - 109

GEORGE   R.

Right Trusty and Right Entirely beloved Cousin and Councillor We Greet you well.  WHEREAS you have represented unto us that Richard D'Alton, Esqr. a native of our Kingdom of Ireland, Lieutenant General in the service of our good Brother the Emperor of Germany, Chamberlain and Privy Councillor of State to His Imperial Majesty and Commander of the Theresian Order, hath requested your Intercession with Us, for Our Gracious Consent and Licence that he the said Richard D'Alton, and certain Relations of his in Our said Kingdom of Ireland, vizt; Oliver D'Alton of Mount D'Alton, and James Nugent of Ballinacor in Our County of Westmeath, Esqr. and Christopher D'Alton and Edward D'Alton of Greenanstown in Our County of Tipperary, Esqr., may severally be permitted to take and use the Title and Coat of Arms of Counts of the German Empire, which Honor was conferred on them by Her late Imperial Majesty, Maria Theresa, such Title and Arms being first duly registered and Entered in the Office of Our King at Arms in our said Kingdom of Ireland.

Extracted from  the Register, I. 27, folio 160,  remaining the College of Arms, this 11th day of May,  1776.
Isaac Heard,  NORROY.

Reg. in lib. 2. fol. 135.

your Sacred Imperial Majesty, by these letters, grants to Sir James de Caldwell, baronet, and to his male lawful descendants for ever, preserving the order of primogeniture, the title of count, in the dutchy of Milan, and declares him a count.

from Playfair's British Family Antiquities, vol. 9, p. 169.


.
Office of arms.
The castle, Dublin.

March 19th, 1930

My dear Boyd,

I am sorry I omitted to send you the enclosed extract from our Grants and Confirmations "A" regarding the D'Alton title.

This is the only one which we have been able to find hero. I think that any others which were allowed were granted through the Heralds' College in London. This is borne out by the secong extract I enclose, regarding the Caldwell Countship.

We have been carefully through Grants and Confirmations to see whether thare are any entries relating to Foreign titles, but without success, and I'm afraid I cannot suggest any other sources from which to obtain information over here. The titles used were adopted without Royal Licence, I fear, and the practice has not died out, as witness the Marquess (!) MacSwiney of Mashonaglass, and Count Plunkett.

Yours very sincerely

Neville R Wilkinson



Confidential

List of Royal Licences for the use of foreign titles

with notes

Home Office
21st May, 1930

The general question of the grant of Royal licences for the use of foreign titles in this country has recently been reconsidered, and His Majesty the King has given directions that no further grants of such licences shall be made, and that applications for licences are to be refused without submission to His Majesty.

The following list contains all the Royal licences to use foreign titles in this country which are known from the official records to have been granted. It has been compiled as to the grants from 1874 onwards from the Home Office records, as to earlier cases from the registers kept by the Kings Of Arms of the three Kingdoms with whom all such grants are required by the terms of the Licence to be registered. Notes have been added indicating very briefly in each case the circumstances of the grant and the history of the grantee ; these are taken from the Home Office files, and in the case of grants before 1874, from such historical sources as were readily accessible.

A. J. E[agleston] 21st May, 1930.

Duchess Dudley, Duchess in Tuscany.
Date of Licence.—23rd May, 1644.*
Grantee.—Dame Alice Dudley.
Limitation of Licence.—None.
Remarks.—The history of this title is curious. Alice Leigh of Stoneleigh married Sir Robert Dudley, son of Queen Elizabeth's Earl of Leicester. He claimed the title, but failed to prove the marriage of his parents. He was a distinguished sailor, shipbuilder, and man of science, and settled at Florence, where he was employed by the Grand Duke, becoming a Roman Catholic. He was created Duke of Northumberland and Earl of Warwick (of the Holy Roman Empire) by the Emperor. His wife, whom he had deserted for another lady, was made Duchess in Tuscany.
EXTINCT.

* This date seems doubtful. The dictionary of National Biography says the title was conferred in 1645 and the Royal Licence granted by Charles II in 1660, which is much more probable. Charles I can have  had little time to deal with foreign titles in 1644.

Marquis d'Albyville, Knight, Baron and Marquis of the Holy Roman Empire.
Date of Licence.—7th April, 1679.
Grantee.—Sir Ignatius White, alias d'Alby.
Limitation of Licence.—None.
Remarks.—White was a 17th century diplomatist, who was Ambassador at Brussels and afterwards at Madrid. He followed James II to France at the Revolution.
EXTINCT on the death of his son, an officer in the French Service.

Count of the Holy Roman Empire, created 27th January, 1684.
Date of Licence.—21st July, 1684.
Grantee.—Charles Granville, Viscount Lansdown.
Limitation of Licence.—Limited to grantee and his descendants.
Remarks.—Son of the Earl of Bath and grandson of Sir Bevil Granville, the hero of the battles of Stratton and Lansdown in the Civil War. He was given his Countship of the Empire for distinguished services in the War against the Turks.
EXTINCT on the death of his son.

Sir John Le Blon, Knight of the Holy Roman Empire, created 5th April, 1744.
Date of Licence.—6th December, 1750.
Grantee.—Sir John Charles Le Blon.
Limitation of Licence.—Limited to grantee and the descendants of his body, both male and female.

Count Lockhart, Count of the Holy Roman Empire, created 25th March, 1783.
Date of Licence.—May, 1785.
Grantee.—James Lockhart Wishart.
Limitation of Licence.—Limited to grantee and his issue.
Remarks.—Belonged to the Jacobite family of Lockhart of Carnwath.  He served with the Austrian Army in the Seven Years' War.

Prince of the Holy Roman Empire, created 31st January, 1778.
Date of License.—19th August, 1785;
Grantee.—George Nassau Clavering Cowper, Earl Cowper.
Limitation of Licence.—Limited to grantee and his issue.
Remarks.—He was Ambassador at Vienna, and his sister was the mistress of the Emperor.

Count D'Alton, Count of the Holy Roman Empire.
Date of Licence.—26th October, 1785.
Grantee.—Richard   D'Alton,   Oliver  D'Alton,   James  Nugent,  Christopher D'Alton, Edward D'Alton.
Limitation of Licence.—None. (The licence appears to be personal to the grantees.)
Remarks.—Particulars of this licence were furnished by Ulster. Richard D'Alton is described as Lieutenant-General in the Imperial Army, and the title is said to have been conferred by Maria Theresa. He seems to have been a haul type of soldier of fortune, who earned a reputation for carrying out harsh orders in a brutal and unfeeling way. He distinguished himself in Transylvania by using a specially high gallows for hanging insurgents; and when the Emperor suppressed the old constitution of the Austrian Netherlands in 1789, D'Alton was employed to put down opposition. But the Flemings cornered him and his regulars in Brussels and forced him to surrender.   See Bisset's History of the Reign of George III, Vol. IV, p. 156.

Baron Wolff, Baron of the Holy Roman Empire, created 16th February, 1791.
Date of Licence.—9th January, 1792.                      
Grantee.—Charles Godfrey Wolff.
Limitation of Licence.—Limited to grantee and his issue.

Prince Successor to the Duchy of Bouillon, created 1786.
Date of Licence.—27th February, 1792.
Grantee.—Philip D'Auvergne.
Remarks.—A French emigre, who was given the rank of Captain in the Royal Navy, and stationed in the Channel Islands to direct the British Intelligence Service in France, which he did throughout the war with great success.  The Home Office Records for the period are full of his work.   After the fall of Napoleon he occupied the duchy of Bouillon, but was not allowed by the Powers to keep it. This suggests that his motive in getting the licence may have been political rather than social.

Count of Rumford, Count of the Holy Roman Empire, created 9th May, 1792.
Date of Licence.—January, 1794.
Grantee.—Sir Benjamin Thompson, Knight.
Limitation of Licence.—Limited to grantee.
Remarks.—A distinguished scientist and inventor, and the founder of the Royal Institution. He was born in the United States of America, and served on the British side in the War of Independence. Entered the service of the Elector of Bavaria, and was Minister of War and head of the Police.
EXTINCT on the death of his daughter.           

Baron Dillon, Baron of the Holy Roman Empire, created and  August, 1767, in favour of Petitioner's father, Francis Dillon.

Date of Licence.—24th April, 1800.
Grantee.—John Talbot Dillon.
Limitation of Licence.—Limited to grantee and his issue.
Remarks.—The College of Arms story does not agree with the Dictionary of National Biography, according to which the title was given to John Dillon (not his father) for his services in Parliament on behalf of his Roman Catholic fellow subjects.

Duke of Bronte, Duke in the two Sicilies, created 10th October, 1799.
Date of Licence.—9th January, 1801.
Grantee.—Horatio Nelson, Baron Nelson.

Count of Maida, Count in Calabria in the two Sicilies.
Date of Licence.—23rd September, 1806.
Grantee.—Sir John Stuart, Knight.
Remarks.—He commanded the British Army which defeated the French at Maida in Calabria.
EXTINCT on his death.

Duke of Bronte.
Date of Licence.—21st October, 1806.
Grantee.—William, Earl Nelson.
Remarks.—This licence has probably lapsed. The title is now claimed by Mr. Hood, third son of the late Lord Bridport, on the ground that it was left to him (to the exclusion of his elder brother) by his father, he being empowered by Italian law to transfer the title by will. Such a descent of the title is outside the limitations of the licence. See 206,380 [ =  HO 45/10641/206380].                 

Omrah or Noble of the Mogul Empire, Hindostan.

Date of Licence.—17th November. 1806.
Grantee.—Vere Warner Hussey.
Remarks.—An Artillery Officer who served in India, and rose to be Lieutenant -General. The title Omrah (=Amir) merely means noble. It could, no doubt, easily be procured at that time by any European of standing, but it is curious that Hussey should have wanted to have it recognised in England, and still more that a licence should have been granted.

Count de Salis, Count of the Holy Roman Empire, created 12th March, 1748.
Date of Licence.—4th April, 1809.
Grantee.—Jerome de Salis.
Limitation of Licence.—Limited to the grantee and those of his familv being subjects of the Realm.
Remarks.—By origin the de Salis are a Swiss noble family from the Grisons. In the early 18th century, Peter de Salis was Imperial Ambassador in England, and was given the Countship, presumably for his diplomatic services.   His son was naturalized in England.

Conde de Vimiera, Count in Portugal.
Date of Licence.—18th October, 1811.
Grantee.—Arthur, Viscount Wellington.
Limitation of Licence.—None.

Conde de Francoso, Count in Portugal.
Date of Licence.— 18th October. 1811.
Grantee.—Sir William Carr Beresford.
Limitation of Licence.—None.
Remarks.—The title was of course given to Beresford as the Commander-in-Chief of the Portuguese Army.   It is understood to have particular reference to his services at Busaco.
EXTINCT.

Count St Paul, Count of the Holy Roman Empire, created 20th July, 1759.
Date of Licence.—7th September, 1812.
Grantee.—Horace David Cholwell St. Paul, Henry Heneage St. Paul, Charles Maximilian St. Paul, and Anna Maria St. Paul.
Remarks.—The real name of the family is Paul, and the father of the Count was a brewer of Westminster. They took the name of St. Paul by Act of Parliament, and appropriated the arms of the great French house of Luxembourg—St. Pol—with which of course they have no connection. See Mr. Round's article in The Ancestor, Vol. VII, p. 17. The Countship was apparently granted for service in the Imperial Army during the Seven Years' War.
EXTINCT 1891.

Baron Dimsdale,  Baron  in  Russia,  created  13th  February, 1769, in favour of Petitioner's father, Thomas Dimsdale.
Date of Licence.—29th July, 1813.
Grantee.—John Dimsdale.
Limitation of Licence.—To grantee and those of his family on whom the dignity should descend.
Remarks.—Dr. Dimsdale (1712-1800), a well-known physician of the 18th century, was invited to Russia in 1762 to inoculate the Empress Catherine and her son.   He was given his barony for this.

Baron de Hochpied, Baron and Magnat of Hungary, created 8th April, 1704.
Date of Licence.—27th September, 1819.
Grantee.—George de Hochpied, and his only nephews, John James de Hochpied Larpent and George Gerard de Hochpied Larpent.
Limitation of Licence.—Limited to the Petitioners and their issue male.
Remarks.—Sir James Porter, Ambassador at Constantinople, married Mdlle.de Hochpied, and their son, who was a Lieutenant-General, and for many years M.P., succeeded to the title on the failure of the male line, and obtained the Royal Licence.

Baron Freemantle, Baron of Austria, created 29th November,  1816, in favour of Petitioner's father, Sir Thomas Francis Freemantle, G.C.B.
Date of Licence.—22nd January, 1822.
Grantee.—Sir Thomas Francis Freemantle.
Limitation of Licence.—Limited to grantee and the heirs male of the body of his late father.
Remarks.—Sir T. Freemantle was Captain of the " Neptune " at Trafalgar, and during 1812-14, was Admiral in command of the Adriatic Squadron, where he did very good service in recovering Dalmatia from the French. Lord Cottesloe now holds the title.

Marquis of Heusden, Netherlands, created 18th July, 1815,
Date of License.—16th August, 1824.
Grantee.—Richard, Earl of Clancarty.
Limitation of Licence.—Limited to grantee and the heirs male of his body.
Remarks.—He accompanied the Prince of Orange when he returned to the Netherlands in 1813, on the expulsion of the French, and had much to do with arranging the incorporation of Holland and Belgium. He was Ambassador to the Netherlands in 1813, and again from 1816 to 1822.

Conde de Cassilhas, Count in Portugal, created 13th May, 1824.
Date of Licence.—10th October, 1825.
Grantee.—Sir Edward Thornton, G.C.B.
Limitation of Licence.—To grantee and his successors in the title.
Remarks.—He was Ambassador to Portugal, and was given his title for sheltering and aiding the King during the insurrection of 1823. The title was granted for two lives beside his own.

Baron Grant, Baron of Austria, created 22nd January, 1831.*
Date of Licence.—9th April, 1832.
Grantee.—Sir William Keir, afterwards Keir Grant.
Limitation of Licence.—Limited to grantee and the heirs male of his body.
Remarks.—As a subaltern he took part in the action of Villers-en-Cauchies (1794), when two squadrons of the 15th Hussars and two squadrons of Austrian Hussars (about 300 sabres in all) attacked and completely routed a French force of all arms, 5,000 strong.   The Emperor gave the eight English officers the Military Order of Maria Theresa, which carries the hereditary rank of Baron.
EXTINCT.

*: if this date is correct it can only have been some kind of confirmation of the grant of 1794.    

Baron Rothschild, Baron of Austria, created 29th September, 1822; in favour of Petitioner's father, Nathan Meyer Rothschild.
Date of Licence.—16th June, 1838.
Grantee.—Lionel Rothschild.
Limitation of Licence.—Limited to grantee and the heirs male of the body of his late father.

Baron de Goldsmid and da Palmeira, Baron of Portugal, created 5th November, 1845.
Date of Licence.—6th June, 1846.
Grantee.—Sir Isaac Lyon Goldsmid, Bart.
Limitation of Licence.—None.
EXTINCT.

Baron de Worms in Austria, created 3rd April, 1871.
Date of Licence.—10th August, 1874.
Grantee.—Solomon Benedict Worms.
Limitation of Licence.—Heirs male of his body.
Remarks.---The Austrian Govemment made an official request for recognition of the title, which was stated in the diploma to have been conferred in consideration of signal services rendered to the Austrian Government.

This title being of enemy origin, the license was  was revoked by Royal Warrant dated 17th January, 1920.

Baron Craignish in Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, created 11th September, 1882.
Date of License.—4th January, 1883.
Grantee.— Ronald MacLeay Laurentz Campbell, Captain (retired list) the Bombay Staff Corps.
Limitation of Licence.—Heirs male of his body.
Remarks.—He was equerry of the Duke of Saxe-Coburg, and the Duke personally requested that the title should be recognised.
EXTINCT.

Count Bentinck, Count of the Holy Roman Empire, created 29th December. 1732.
Date of Licence.—22nd April, 1886.
Grantee.—William Charles Philip Otho Bentinck.
Limitation of Licence.—Grantee and the heirs male of his body upon whom the dignity should devolve. Petitioner's mother and the descendants of his father to use title of Count or Countess.
Remarks.—This branch of the Bentincks are one of the mediatised princely houses of Germany. Applicant was not the eldest son, but his elder brother had resigned the title to him in due form according to German law.

Baron Campbell von Laurentz in Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, created 1st November, 1886.
Date of Licence.—14th February, 1887.
Grantee.—Edmund Kempt Laurentz Campbell.
Limitation of Licence.—Heirs male of his body.
Remarks.—Elder brother of Baron Craignish, an officer in the German Army, and equerry of the Duke of Saxe-Coburg.
EXTINCT.

Baron William von Schroder, Baron of the Kingdom of Prussia, created 26th December, 1868.
Date of Licence.—13th May, 1890.
Grantee.—William Henry von Schroder.
Limitation of Licence.—Limited to grantee.
Remarks.—Applicant was second son of the first Baron, and was not holder of the Barony. The licence appears to have been granted on the ground that Prussian usage entitled him to be called Baron W. Von Schroder.
EXTINCT.

Baron  Halkett of  the  Kingdom   of  Hanover,  conferred  upon  the  Petitioner's grandfather, Sir Hugh Halkett, 18th June, 1862,
Date of Licence.—19th March, 1891.
Grantee.—Hugh Colin Gustave George Halkett, Lieutenant, 24th Middlesex Rifle Volunteers.
Limitation of Licence.—Heirs male of his body.
Remarks.—Sir H. Halkett served with the King's German Legion in Spain, and was appointed to the Hanoverian Army in 1813.    He commanded a brigade with great distinction at Waterloo, and served in the Hanoverian Army until 1862.
EXTINCT.

Baron von Reuter in Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, created 7th September, 1870.
Date of Licence.—6th November, 1891.
Grantee.—Paul Julius Reuter.
Limitation of Licence.—Heirs male of his body.

Baron in Italy, created 23rd October,  1890.
Date of Licence.—5th November, 1892.
Grantee.—Adolph Kusel.
Limitation of Licence.—Limited to grantee.
Remarks.—Grantee was a naturalized German in business at Liverpool   The application did not disclose the nature of the service which led the King of Italy to confer the title.

Baron in Italy, created 23rd October, 1890.
Date of Licence.—8th February, 1893.
Grantee.—Samuel Selig Kusel.
Limitation of Licence.—Limited to grantee.
Remarks.—Nephew of Adolf Kusel, and resident in Florence.   Nothing was disclosed as to the reasons for the grant of the title.

Baron de Bush, Barony of Saxe-Coburg, created 25th December, 1889.
Date of Licence.—-29th July, 1896.
Grantee.—William Ernest Bush.
Limitation of Licence.—Limited to grantee.
Remarks.—Granted by Queen Victoria personally, without any submission from the Home Office. It is understood that the title was given in consideration of eminent services to science.
EXTINCT.

Baron de Forest,* Barony of the Austrian Empire, created 26th February, 1899.
Date of Licence.—6th October, 1900.
Grantee.—Maurice Arnold de Forest.
Limitation of Licence.—Limited to grantee.
Remarks.—Granted by Queen Victoria personally, without submission from the Home Office, the grantee having been recently naturalized.   The reason for the grant of the title was not stated.

*This  title being of enemy origin, the licence was revoked by Royal Warrant dated 17th January, 1920.

Baron Boxall,* Barony of Saxe-Coburg, created 8th September, 1900.
Date of Licence.—17th October, 1900.
Grantee.—Alleyne Alfred Boxall.
Limitation of Licence.—Heirs male of bis body on whom the title should descend.
Remarks.—Granted by Queen Victoria personally, without submission from the Home Office, it was understood  on  account of services to the Duke of Edinburgh.

Baron de Teissier, Barony of the Kingdom of France, created 4th December, 1819, in favour of Petitioner's grandfather.
Date of Licence.—16th September, 1905.
Grantee.—Henry Price de Teissier.
Limitation of Licence.—Heirs male of his body on whom the title should descend.
Remarks.—Granted by King Edward in view of the antiquity of the title.

Count Riccardi-Cubitt. Count of the Kingdom of Italy.
Date of Licence.—16th December, 1905.
Grantee.—Thomas Riccardi-Cubitt.
Limitation of Licence.—Limited to grantee and his wife.
Remarks.—Grantee was married  to the heiress of the ancient Florentine family of Riccardi, and had been authorised by the King of Italy to use the title.

Baron Nugent,* Baron of the Austrian Empire, created 25th August, 1859.
Date of Licence.—22nd July. 1908
Grantee.—Alfred Llewellyn Nugent.
Limitation of licence.—Heirs male of his body in succession on whom the title should descend.
Remarks.—The title was granted in view of the distinguished military services of the family, 20 of whom had held commissions in the Austrian Army, and 13 had fallen in action. Submitted by the Home Office without recommendation.

Marquis of Sarzano, Marquis of the Duchy of Modena, created 1695.
Date  of Licence.—22nd August, 1910.
Grantee.—Frank James Carandini, late Major 5th Lancers.
Limitation of Licence.—Heirs male of his body on whom the title should devolve.
Remarks.—Granted in view of the antiquity of the title.
EXTINCT.

Count de Bury, Count of Austria, created 5th September, 1753.
Date of Licence.—19th November, 1910.
Grantee.—Henry Robert Visart de Bury.
Limitation of Licence.—Heirs male of his body in succession on whom the title should descend.
Remarks.—Granted in view of the antiquity of the title, and the fact that applicant held a commission in the Royal Artillery.

Baron Bentinck, Barony of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, recognised by a decree of 10th June, 1819 (said to have been created in 1558).
Date of Licence.—12th September, 1911.
Grantee.—Walter Guy Bentinck.
Limitation of Licence.—Heirs male of his body in order of primogeniture on whom the title should descend.
Remarks.—Granted in view of the antiquity of the family and applicant's Army service.

Count von Gurowski,* Count of the Kingdom of Prussia, created 5th November, 1787.
Date of Licence.—9th November, 1911.
Grantee.—Dudley Melchior Beaumont von Gurowski.
Limitation of Licence.—Heirs male of his body in succession on whom the title should descend.
Remarks.—Granted on the ground that it was an old title originally given for public services.

*This  title being of enemy origin, the licence was revoked by Royal Warrant dated 17th January, 1920.

Baron William von Schroder,* Baron of the Kingdom of Prussia, created 20th December, 1868.
Date of Licence.—6th November, 1912.
Grantee.—William Henry von Schroder.
Limitation of License.—Limited to the grantee personally.
Remarks.—Son of  Baron William Von Schroder above.   Not the actual holder.

*This  title being of enemy origin, the licence was revoked by Royal Warrant dated 17th January, 1920.

Baron de Rutzen, Baron of the Kingdom of Poland, created (or formally recognised) 26th December, 1657.
Date of Licence.—23rd May, 1918.
Grantee.—John Frederick Foley de Rutzen.
Limitation of Licence.—Heirs male of his body on whom the title should descend.
Remarks.—Granted in consideration of the long and valuable service of  applicant's grandfather as Chief Magistrate of the Metropolitan Police Courts.

Marquis d'Hautpoul de Seyre, Marquis of the Kingdom of France, created about 1710.
Date of Licence.—6th June, 1923.
Grantee.—Pierre d'Hautpoul.
Limitation of Licence.—Limited to grantee personally.
Remarks.—Submitted by the Home Office without recommendation. Granted by His Majesty as a special case, the applicant having been recently naturalized.



return to Styles and Titles of the British royal family
British Heraldry Page | Search Heraldica | Heraldic Glossary | Contact

François Velde

Last modified: Jun 17, 2007