FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FOR ALT.TALK.ROYALTY
-- ROYAL & NOBLE FAMILIES OF THE WORLD --

SUMMARY:

This monthly posting contains a list of Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) and their answers and other useful information about royal and noble families of the world, excluding Britain's royal and noble families. (The British Royal & Noble Families FAQ can be found at http://www.heraldica.org/faqs/britfaq.html) It should be read by anyone who wishes to post to the alt.talk.royalty newsgroup.

A separate posting lists only the changes made during the last month to this document: http://tinyurl.com/ymaapk.

Note: the FAQ contains European characters (accented letters) which may not show on your browser/newsreader or may show garbled characters. Ask your Internet Service Provider for an "8-bit clean feed" if you have this problem.

Last updated: 12 Aug 2013

For comments, additions, or suggestions, please contact the maintainer François Velde (http://www.heraldica.org/contact.html).


Table of Contents:

Part I: Introduction
  1. What is alt.talk.royalty?
  2. How do I access alt.talk.royalty?
  3. Welcome to alt.talk.royalty!
  4. History of the alt.talk.royalty FAQ
  5. Basic newsgroup "netiquette".
  6. What kind of postings are appropriate in alt.talk.royalty?
  7. Examples of "good" and "bad" posts.
  8. Are there archives where I can find older posts on a subject?
  9. What other newsgroups and chat groups are there?
  10. Can I sell or advertise in this newsgroup?
  11. Where can I get the latest version of the FAQ?
Part II: Royal Families of the World
  1. Are there other monarchies in the world besides England?
  2. Who are the members of the European royal families?
  3. What are the dynastic names of the European royal families?
  4. Lines of succession to the current European Thrones.
  5. Laws of succession for the current European monarchies.
  6. Lines of succession to the current non-European Thrones.
  7. What are the differences between HRH, HH and HSH?
  8. What are the styles and titles of the world's current monarchs?
  9. What are the full titles of the current European monarchs?
  10. Formerly-reigning monarchs and present-day claimants in Europe and the Americas since 1849.
  11. When did the world's current monarchs succeed?
  12. Birthdays of the world's current monarchs.
  13. Official Birthdays and National Holidays.
  14. Royal Landmarks (Places of Interest).
  15. What are the addresses of the world's current monarchs?
  16. How are the Reuss princes numbered and why are they all named Heinrich?
  17. What happens when a king dies and his widow is pregnant?
Part III: Nobility
  1. What does it mean to be a noble?
  2. What does it mean to be a German noble?
Part IV: Resources
  1. On-line Sources of Information
  2. Useful Addresses
  3. Electronic (on-line) Magazines
  4. Bibliography
  5. Lexicon

Part I: Introduction

1. What is alt.talk.royalty?

alt.talk.royalty is an unmoderated newsgroup created for the purpose of discussion of all aspects of royalty and nobility of any time period anywhere in the world. There is no mailing list gated to this group. Please remember that one cannot subscribe to or unsubscribe from alt.talk.royalty via a mailing list, as is the case, e.g., for soc.genealogy.medieval.

alt.talk.royalty was first proposed in December 1994 and was created in February 1995 (according to: ftp://ftp.uu.net/usenet/control/alt/alt.talk.royalty)

Despite the FAQ compiler's efforts, it has not been determined who began alt.talk.royalty nor who is responsible for composing its charter.

The charter states: "The group is oriented to discussion of royalty and nobility of all nationalities, both present day and historical. Discussions of the British royal family, the possibility of a restored Russian monarchy, Henry VIII's foibles, and the forms of address used in the Spanish court would all be appropriate. Advertising and commercialism are not welcome, especially since everyone knows that involvement in retail commerce results in attainder!"

All those who have access to alt.talk.royalty and are interested in royalty and nobility are encouraged to participate. (Before interested individuals "discovered" alt.talk.royalty and began posting to it regularly, they posted their questions in rec.heraldry.)  The scope of the group encompasses topics such as the sovereigns or rulers of nations, royal and noble genealogies, vital statistics (births, marriages, deaths), lines of succession, royal residences, biographies, current events, pretenders or claimants to thrones, mistresses and illegitimate children, so on and so forth.

alt.talk.royalty is not here for the glorification of royalty.  All views, positive, negative and in-between, are permitted.  We are here to talk about royalty and nobility. You will find, however, most people who post to alt.talk.royalty talk in favor of royalty and that they are not anti-royalist. You can express anti-royalist sentiments, but it is a fair assumption that you will get a heated and vociferous response. Royalty discussions can bring out the best and the worst in people; they engender strong emotions and opinions.

alt.talk.royalty has in its midst authors, genealogists, historians, journalists and other such posters (and lurkers). Some of our members post to the group while others prefer to lurk. Our members are international: as of this edition of the FAQ, the majority are from the United States, while the rest are from Australia, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Russia, Sweden and the United Kingdom.

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2. How do I access alt.talk.royalty?

alt.talk.royalty is an Internet (or Usenet) newsgroup. To access it, you need a "client" (software application) on your computer and access to a "news (or Usenet) server". The client will connect to the server, retrieve the posts, and send your own replies. The server will then disseminate your posts to the rest of the world.

If you have access to the Web, your web browser can serve as client, and you can access a server over the Web. See Yahoo directory for "Usenet servers" for a list. Google Groups (http://groups.google.com) also offers access.

Alternatively, contact your ISP (Internet Service Provider) and ask them if they have a news server and what software they provide to connect to it. Again, your web browser can serve as a news client to connect to the news server.

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3. Welcome to alt.talk.royalty!

This purpose of this chapter is to provide useful information for new members of alt.talk.royalty.  First-time users, or even those who've been here a few times, have found the newsgroup's atmosphere intimidating. When posting for the first time, some people find themselves the object of criticism or downright abuse. The new-to-the-group poster might not understand that that kind of behavior happens with regularity in newsgroups. And so, at the suggestion of some alt.talk.royalty regulars, the FAQ compiler and maintainer has developed this section which will hopefully explain the personalities of the regular members as well as provide tips on how to "survive" in alt.talk.royalty.

One of the first things that is noticeable about alt.talk.royalty is that it has a dual personality. Some days, it has a pleasant, quiet, stress-free atmosphere, while on other days it can be testy, noisy and combative. Some days, it can be academic and instructive in tone, yet gossipy and disruptive on other days. It has been suggested that, generally speaking, the male members of alt.talk.royalty are competitive (with some positively thriving on this), while the female members seem cooperative. For the most part, alt.talk.royalty's members are pro-royalty/monarchy.  What sets us apart are our personal perspectives and biases.

alt.talk.royalty has quite an interesting mix of people. While we can't tell you about the lurkers (they obviously prefer to remain anonymous), we can tell you about those who post with some regularity. There are authors (Greg King, author of The Last Empress; Marlene Koenig, author under the name of Marlene A. Eilers, of Queen Victoria's Descendants; Peter Kurth, author of Anastasia: The Riddle of Anna Anderson; Ted Rosvall, author of Bernadotte-Attlingar; William Addams Reitwiesner, author of The American Ancestors and Relatives of Lady Diana Frances Spencer, Guy Stair Sainty, author of The Orders of Chivalry and Merit of the Bourbon Two Sicilies Dynasty, Daniel Willis, author under the name of Daniel Brewer-Ward of The House of Habsburg: a genealogy of the descendants of Empress Maria Theresia), art dealer (Guy Stair Sainty), author (Grant Hayter-Menzies), lawyer (Patrick Cracroft- Brennan), librarian (Noel McFerran), medical doctor (Sam Dotson), university professors (Stephen Stillwell, Peter Kurrild-Klitgaard, and Jeffrey Taliaferro, the last two political scientists), some who share ancestors with royalty or are descendants of royalty (Frank Johansen and Grant Menzies), and even an aristocrat or two (Gilbert von Studnitz and Eric von Ehrenberg). Of course, there are also the average, everyday type of person who posts to alt.talk.royalty.

If one observes alt.talk.royalty for some time, individual types become obvious and one finds that they usually view and respond about royalty/monarchy in a predictable way. For example, there are the absolute monarchists (Louis Epstein, Noel McFerran), the genealogists (Sam Dotson, Marlene Koenig, Steven Lavallee, William Addams Reitwiesner, Darren Shelton, Paul Theroff, Daniel Willis), the historians (François Velde), the legalists (Paul Johnson, Guy Stair Sainty), the legitimists (Dimitry Macedonsky), so on and so on. One can continue to categorize alt.talk.royalty's members into those types who enjoy the gossip/daily lives aspect of royalty, those whose only interest is the British royal family enthusiasts (with a subset focussed on Diana, Princess of Wales), those who view royalty from a religious aspect, from a political aspect, so on and so forth.

Some of alt.talk.royalty's members use an alias, but most post under their real names. Some posters have obvious favorite areas and share willingly their knowledge. Other posters are more generalists, but share their knowledge with the same generosity. Some posters will only post or reply when their favorite topic comes up for discussion. Other posters will reply to just about everything and anything. Some of the regulars always provide references for their replies which can annoy some people, while others feel it useful and informative. Other posters never cite their sources. Some posters reply to questions succinctly while others provide mini-essays. Some posters will point out spelling and grammar errors while others never do so.  Some posters reply to others in a light- hearted way while others are business-like.  Some posters will criticize another member's question for whatever reason, while other posters will reply kindly and helpfully. Some posters have strong beliefs and won't budge an inch when discussing a particular topic, while others seem flexible and willing to see other points of view. Lastly, some of the nastier posters (and they are only a handful, thankfully) almost always use foul language, are rude and hurtful and seem to be in alt.talk.royalty only to disrupt the group.

New members and not-so-new ones will probably realize at this point that given these types of personalities, it would not be easy to post with confidence in alt.talk.royalty. The FAQ compiler and maintainer has received emails from people who feel they've been poorly treated by the regulars. Because of this, they chose to lurk instead of posting in the group or vow never to return to alt.talk.royalty. Some posters almost always behave in a certain way and their criticisms shouldn't be taken personally because that is how they behave to just about everyone. It is almost guaranteed that when a person posts to a newsgroup he or she will eventually be criticized or abused. Please don't be intimidated by the bad manners of some and leave alt.talk.royalty too soon. There are lots of us who welcome newcomers and we appreciate your ideas and input!

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4. History of the alt.talk.royalty FAQ

There was talk in early 1996 of creating a FAQ for alt.talk.royalty and some work for one had been started by members of the group.  It did not materialize into a finished product, however. A few months later, in August 1996, another member of the group (Mark Odegard) posted a titles FAQ to the group.  It was called "A Glossary of European Noble, Princely, Royal, and Imperial Titles".  (It can now be found on the WWW at:
http://www.heraldica.org/topics/odegard/titlefaq.htm.)

Nonetheless, alt.talk.royalty remained without a general, all-purpose FAQ until May 1997. At that time, a rough draft version of a FAQ was posted to the group; it had been created by Yvonne Demoskoff with the help of several members. A number of additions, corrections and suggestions were made over the next few months and by November 1997 the rough draft was replaced with an official first version.

In June 1998, the FAQ was posted once again to the newsgroup but this time it was in two distinct parts:  one was called the Brit-FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions for alt.talk.royalty - British Royal & Noble Families) and the other was called the non-Brit-FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions for alt.talk.royalty - Non-British Royal & Noble Families).

In August 1998, François Velde took over the maintenance of the various alt.talk.royalty FAQs.

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5. Basic newsgroup "netiquette".

Before posting to any Usenet group, please read the introductory articles in the newsgroup news.announce.newusers. There, Emily Postnews will help you through some netiquette you need to know before posting.

We highly recommend "lurking", that is, reading messages without posting anything for a few weeks so that you get an idea of how people typically phrase their postings. This will also give you an idea of the flow of the newsgroup, the personalities of the regulars, and the like. The easiest way to learn how to post in a.t.r. is to watch how others do it. Start by reading the posts and try to figure out what people are doing and why. After a few weeks, you will start to understand why certain things are done and what things shouldn't be done.

Occasionally, you will see trolls (strong worded postings intended only to provoke a lot of replies), flames and off-topic posts.  The best way to deal with these kinds of postings is to ignore them. If your newsreader program allows the use of a kill-file make use of it to filter out undesirable postings. Alternatively, if you see a blatantly offensive message, do not respond with another post. Instead, send a strong complaint to <postmaster@posters.site> and <abuse@posters.site>.

One last point to remember concerning inappropriate behavior:  our newsgroup, in common with other newsgroups, has its share of people who seek to disrupt the group collectively and/or its posters individually. alt.talk.royalty and its FAQ might not have an official policy as to how one should deal with such disruptive behavior, but it can suggest the following: DNFTEC. This stands for "Do Not Feed The Energy Creature".  An energy creature's favorite feeding tactic is to try to hurt people's feelings or get them angry. The Energy Creature can then feed off the pain and anger it has generated. Its second favorite tactic is to hurt one person or the group's feelings while gathering the sympathy of others. That way, when the injured party lashes back, others will jump to the Energy Creature's defense. The Energy Creature feeds off the attention and the negative energy generated by the people fighting. Newsgroups will never be completely rid of such obnoxious, offensive and ill-mannered beings, but much can be done to keep the situation under control by remembering this simple formula: DNFTEC. If the Energy Creature gets a response, it gets stronger. If it is ignored, it will eventually weaken, wither and go away. Remember:  do not to feed the energy creatures.

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6. What kind of postings are appropriate in alt.talk.royalty?

We are an unmoderated newsgroup. The only things not allowed here are things prohibited by Usenet protocol, such as spams (the posting of off-topic material to many Usenet groups) and illegal postings (e.g. chain letters, sending non-exportable things, threatening to kill people). However, inappropriate topics or posts are those which are completely unrelated to royalty and nobility.

Attachments, whether they are text (batch files, system files) or binaries (audio, video, pictures such as .JPGs, .GIFs, .TIFs and the like, programs, and "web" files such as HTML, HTM, SHTML) are also inappropriate. Binaries must be kept in groups with binaries in the name; they cannot appear in alt.talk.royalty.  If news administrators find binaries in a.t.r., they could kill the group and move it to the alt.binaries section. A better way of dealing with binaries is to post the binary in a binaries group and to write a note in a.t.r. telling the group where the particular binary can be found. In other words, do not post anything other than plain text in our non-binary newsgroup.

Posts which refer to royalty and nobility in a negative way (such as suggesting that one monarchy in particular, or all monarchies in general should be overthrown), while not off-topic, will usually get no response. Most of the posters in alt.talk.royalty are fully aware of the strengths and weaknesses of hereditary systems, and are participating in this newsgroup to explore the intricacies of these systems, rather than to engage in flamewars with persons who are opposed to the idea of these systems.

Patently offensive remarks are inappropriate.

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7. Examples of "good" and "bad" posts.

Let's begin with "bad" posts:

"Please tell me EVERYTHING about Princess Diana."
"I need to know ALL the people in line to the British throne; my homework is due tomorrow!"
"I'm looking for information about the kings of England."
-- these types of posts are usually met with well deserved sarcasm or risk being completely ignored
"So-and-so is an idiot and should be shot!"
-- personal comments or attacks on a.t.r. members have no place in a royalty newsgroup; take it to private e-mail, if you must
"This is a test."
-- there isn't any reason to test alt.talk.royalty, the system works fine. If you have to test something, do it in a group with 'test' in it such as alt.test or misc.test.
And now "good" posts:
"Who succeeded King George II?"
"Why does Queen Elizabeth II celebrate her birthday in April and in June?"
"Where is King Henry VIII buried?"
"Can someone tell me how King George V and Tsar Nicholas II are related?"

(these "bad" and "good" posts are examples only and will not be necessarily found in the FAQ)

Points to Remember:
  • when the topic in a post has changed, please reflect that in the subject heading by indicating the new subject and including a reference to the old subject heading
  • we suggest reading all the existing responses to a query before posting one's own response; maybe the question has already been answered, and the name of the game is not to show off how much one knows
  • people don't like to read things again and again; therefore, try to avoid large quotes; quote only what you respond to
  • please keep the lines of your messages to under 70 characters; long lines will overflow when quoted by others and become very difficult to read
  • remember, it is generally considered rude to post private e-mail correspondence without the permission of the author of that mail
  • be careful about infringing upon copyrights and licenses; when quoting, do not use more of the work than is necessary to make your commentary; for more information on copyright, read "Copyright Myths FAQ: 10 big myths about copyright explained" found at the following URL:  http://www.clari.net/brad/copymyths.html
  • posts may be in any language, but will probably be understood by the largest audience if in English

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8. Are there archives where I can find older posts on a subject?

Most Internet Service Providers (ISPs) do not keep posts for more than one or two weeks. Therefore, to find older posts, head over to the WWW and check out "Google Groups" (formerly known as Deja News) at: http://groups.google.com/groups?as_ugroup=alt.talk.royalty

Once there, you will be able to search old posts back to April 1995.

This is also a good starting point to see what questions have already been asked in our newsgroup. It's possible that your particular question has already been asked.

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9. What other newsgroups and chat groups are there?

Some newsgroups that deal with royalty and/or related subjects are:
  • alt.gossip.royalty
  • rec.heraldry (discussions of coats of arms and of the honors they can depict)
  • soc.genealogy.medieval (discussions of genealogy, royal or otherwise, mainly of the Middle Ages)
  • soc.history
  • soc.history.ancient
  • soc.history.medieval

N.B.: not all ISPs carry "alt." and "clari." newsgroups; however, they can be accessed by visiting the Google Groups web site at:
http://groups.google.com

We suggest that you find out more about these newsgroups by reading their FAQs, if available, or by lurking, so that you post your queries in the appropriate group and not haphazardly cross-post to all of them.

America Online (AOL) features chat groups about royalty for its members. The royalty chats meet almost daily and the topics range from discussions about the late Diana, Princess of Wales to the Romanovs to the Tudors.

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10. Can I sell or advertise in this newsgroup?

Usenet procedures heavily discourage advertising in newsgroups not specifically designed for commerce. Having said that, one-time offers to sell or buy books, and such, about royalty and nobility, will be tolerated. Those who wish to regularly advertise should post their messages in the appropriate newsgroups (for example, alt.genealogy.marketplace).

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11. Where can I get the latest version of this FAQ?

You can obtain the latest version of the FAQ by visiting its web site at:
http://www.heraldica.org/faqs/atrfaq.html

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Part II: Royal Families of the World

1. Are there other monarchies in the world besides England?

We're glad you asked this question because it certainly seems to many people that the United Kingdom (aka England) has the monopoly on "royalty" and "royal family". The U.K. is but one of twenty-nine monarchies left today. Note that this list does not include Commonwealth monarchies where Queen Elizabeth II is a monarch of an independent monarchy (such as Canada or Australia, for example) nor does it include Vatican City (The Holy See).

  1. EUROPE
    • Grand Duchy:
      • Luxembourg
    • Kingdoms:
      • Belgium
      • Denmark
      • Netherlands
      • Norway
      • Spain
      • Sweden
      • United Kingdom
    • Principalities:
  2. AFRICA
    • Kingdoms:
      • Lesotho
      • Morocco
      • Swaziland
  3. ASIA
    • Elected Monarchy:
    • Empire:
      • Japan
    • Kingdoms:
      • Bhutan
      • Cambodia
      • Thailand
    • Sultanate:
      • Brunei
  4. MIDDLE EAST
    • Emirates:
    • Kingdoms:
      • Bahrain (since 14/2/2002)
      • Jordan
      • Saudi Arabia
    • Sultanate:
      • Oman
  5. OCEANIA
    • Kingdoms:
      • Tonga

Notes

  1. Andorra is a co-principality, under the suzerainty of the President of France and the Spanish Bishop of Urgel. Since 1993, these positions are almost purely honorary and they are considered titular Heads of States.
  2. Malaysia is a federation consisting of thirteen states: Johore, Kedah, Kelantan, Malacca, Negri Sembilan, Pahang, Penang, Perak, Perlis, Sabah, Sarawak, Selangor, Trengganu. Its Head of State (or, Supreme Head of Malaysia) is a monarch who is elected for a five-year term by and from the hereditary rulers of nine of the states.
  3. The United Arab Emirates became independent of the United Kingdom in 1971. They consist of seven sheikhdoms: Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Sharjah, Ras al-Khaimah, Umm al-Qaiwain, Ajman, Fujairah. The Head of State is an elected President chosen from one of the hereditary rulers of the seven emirates.

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2. Who are the members of the European royal families?

Conflicting information has been received as to who are official members of these royal families, therefore, if anyone will be suggesting additions or corrections, the FAQ maintainer would be grateful if a source of information would be provided.
Belgium:
HM The King, his wife, their children, his brother and sister with their spouses and children, HM King Albert II, HM Queen Paola, HM Queen Fabiola
Denmark:
HM The Queen, her husband, their sons and grandchildren, their daughters-in-law, Princess Benedikte, her children, Princess Elisabeth
Liechtenstein:
HSH Prince Hans Adam II, his wife, their children, their grandchildren, Prince Philipp, his wife, their sons, Prince Nikolaus, his wife, their children
Luxembourg:
HRH Grand Duke Henri, his wife, their children, HRH (the former) Grand Duke Jean, his children
Monaco:
HSH Prince Albert II, his sisters, Princess Antoinette
Netherlands:
A distinction is made between the royal house ( head of state, the former head of state, the members of the royal family in line for the throne with degree of relationship no more than two, and their spouses) and the royal family. The royal house consists of HM The King, HM the Queen, his mother (HRH Princess Beatrix of the Netherlands, formerly reigning queen), their children, his brother Constantijn and his spouse; HRH Princess Margriet and her husband.
Norway:
A distinction is made between the royal house (sovereign and spouse, heir apparent and spouse, princes and princesses entitled to the style of Royal Highness) and the royal family (other descendants of the King and Queen and their spouses, siblings of the King and their spouses). Thus, the royal house consists of HM King Harald, HM Queen Sonja, HRH Crown Prince Haakon, HRH Crown Princess Mette-Marit and HRH Princess Ingrid Alexandra. The royal family includes in addition Prince Sverre Magnus, Princess Märtha Louise, Ari Behn, their children Maud Angelica and Leah Isadora Behn, Princess Ragnhild Mrs. Lorentzen, Erling Sven Lorentzen, Princess Astrid, Mrs. Ferner and Johan Martin Ferner.
Spain:
HM The King, his wife, their children, his sisters (Infanta Pilar, Duchess of Badajoz, Infanta Margarita, Duchess of Soria), Infante Don Carlos de Borbón (first cousin of the king).
Sweden:
HM The King, his wife, their children, HRH Princess Lilian, Duchess of Halland, Princess Birgitta

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3. What are the dynastic names of the European royal families?

The dynastic names for the European royal families are taken from Burke's Royal Families of the World, Volume I, 1977. Other possibly correct dynastic names will be indicated in parentheses.
Belgium:
House of Wettin (Saxe-Coburg and Gotha)
Denmark:
House of Glücksborg
(cadet line of the house of Oldenborg, on the throne since 1863)
(the house of Oldenborg had been on the throne since 1448)
Liechtenstein:
House of Liechtenstein
Luxembourg:
House of Nassau
Monaco:
House of Grimaldi
Netherlands:
House of Orange-Nassau (van Oranje-Nassau)
Norway:
House of Glücksburg
Spain:
House of Borbón
Sweden:
House of Bernadotte

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4. Lines of succession to the current European thrones.

The following lines of succession are limited to the first ten or less people in line of succession of the present European thrones. Each person's relationship is indicated by one or two letters (s=son, d=daughter, b=brother, ss=sister, u=uncle, a=aunt, fc=first cousin, sc=second cousin) followed by a digit (0 stands for the current sovereign). For example, s0 means son of the current sovereign, d4 means daughter of person 4 on the list.

Belgium

  1. HRH Princess Elisabeth of Belgium, duchess of Brabant (b. 2001, d0)
  2. HRH Prince Gabriel of Belgium (b. 2003, s0)
  3. HRH Prince Emmanuel of Belgium (b. 2005, s0)
  4. HRH Princess Astrid of Belgium (b. 1962, ss0)
  5. Amadeo of Habsburg-Lorraine, Prince of Belgium, Prince Imperial and Archduke of Austria-Este, Prince Royal of Hungary and Bohemia (b. 1986, s4)
  6. Maria Laura of Habsburg-Lorraine, Princess of Belgium, Princess Imperial and Archduchess of Austria-Este, Princess Royal of Hungary and Bohemia (b. 1988, d4)
  7. Joachim of Habsburg-Lorraine, Prince of Belgium, Prince Imperial and Archduke of Austria-Este, Prince Royal of Hungary and Bohemia (b. 1991, s4)
  8. Louisa Maria of Habsburg-Lorraine, Princess of Belgium, Princess Imperial and Archduchess of Austria-Este, Princess Royal of Hungary and Bohemia (b. 1995, d4)
  9. Laeticia Maria of Habsburg-Lorraine, Princess of Belgium, Princess Imperial and Archduchess of Austria-Este, Princess Royal of Hungary and Bohemia (b. 2003, d4)
  10. HRH Prince Laurent of Belgium (b. 1963, b0)
  11. HRH Princess Louise of Belgium (b. 2004, d10)
  12. HRH Prince Nicolas of Belgium (b. 2005, s10)
  13. HRH Prince Aymeric of Belgium (b. 2005, s10)

Denmark

  1. HRH Crown Prince Frederik of Denmark (b. 1968, s0)
  2. HRH Prince Christian of Denmark (b. 2005, s1)
  3. HRH Princess Isabella of Denmark (b. 2007, d1)
  4. HRH Prince Vincent (b. 2011, s1)
  5. HRH Princess Josephine (b. 2011, d1)
  6. HRH Prince Joachim of Denmark (b. 1969, s0)
  7. HH Prince Nikolai of Denmark (b. 28-8-1999, s6)
  8. HH Prince Felix of Denmark (b. 22-7-2002, s6)
  9. HH Prince Henrik of Denmark (b. 4-5-2009, s6)
  10. HH Princess NN (b. 24-01-2012, d6)
  11. HRH Princess Benedikte of Denmark (b. 1944, ss0)
  12. HH Princess Elisabeth of Denmark (b. 1935, fc0)

(For more on the law of succession in Denmark, see the essay by Peter Kurrild-Klitgaard at http://www.hoelseth.com/royalty/denmark/dk-suc-law.html.)

Liechtenstein

  1. HSH Hereditary Prince Alois of Liechtenstein (b. 1968)
  2. HSH Prince Joseph-Wenzel of Liechtenstein (b. 1995)
  3. HSH Prince Georg of Liechtenstein (b. 1999)
  4. HSH Prince Nikolaus Sebastian of Liechtenstein (b. 2000)
  5. HSH Prince Maximilian of Liechtenstein (b. 1969)
  6. HSH Prince Alfons of Liechtenstein (b. 2001)
  7. HSH Prince Constantin of Liechtenstein (b. 1972)
  8. HSH Prince Philipp of Liechtenstein (b. 1946)
  9. HSH Prince Alexander of Liechtenstein (b. 1972)
  10. HSH Prince Wenzeslaus of Liechtenstein (b. 1974)
  11. HSH Prince Rudolf of Liechtenstein (b. 1975)
  12. HSH Prince Nikolaus of Liechtenstein (b. 1947)
  13. HSH Prince Josef-Emanuel of Liechtenstein (b. 1989)

Luxembourg

  1. HRH Hereditary Grand Duke Guillaume of Luxembourg (b. 1981, s0)
  2. HRH Prince Felix of Luxembourg (b. 1984, s0)
  3. HRH Princess Alexandra of Luxembourg (b. 1991, d0)
  4. HRH Prince Sébastien of Luxembourg (b. 1992, s0)

Monaco

  1. HRH Princess of Hanover [Caroline] (b. 1957, ss0)
  2. Andrea Casiraghi (b. 1984, s1)
  3. Pierre Casiraghi (b. 1987, s1)
  4. Charlotte Casiraghi (b. 1986, d1)
  5. HRH Princess Alexandra of Hanover (b. 1999, d1)
  6. HSH Princess Stephanie of Monaco (b. 1965, ss0)
  7. Louis Ducruet (b. 1992, s6)
  8. Pauline Ducruet (b. 1994, d6)

Netherlands

  1. HRH Princess Catharina-Amalia of the Netherlands, Princess of Orange, Princess of Orange-Nassau (b. 2003, d0)
  2. HRH Princess Alexia of the Netherlands, Princess of Orange-Nassau (b. 2005, d0)
  3. HRH Princess Ariane of the Netherlands, Princess of Orange-Nassau (b. 2007, d0)
  4. HRH Prince Constantijn of the Netherlands, Prince of Orange-Nassau, Jonkheer van Amsberg (b. 1969, b0)
  5. Countess Eloise of Orange-Nassau, Jonkvrouw van Amsberg (b. 2002, d4)
  6. Count Claus-Casimir of Orange-Nassau, Jonkheer van Amsberg (b. 2004, s4)
  7. Countess Leonore of Orange-Nassau, Jonkvrouw van Amsberg (b. 2006, d4)
  8. HRH Princess Margriet of the Netherlands, Princess of Orange-Nassau, Princess of Lippe-Biesterfeld (b. 1943, aunt0)

Norway

  1. HRH Crown Prince Haakon of Norway (b. 1973, s0)
  2. HRH Princess Ingrid Alexandra of Norway (b. 2004, d1)
  3. Prince Sverre Magnus of Norway (b. 2005, s1)
  4. Princess Märtha Louise of Norway (b. 1971, d0)
  5. Maud Angelica Behn (b. 2003, d4)
  6. Leah Isadora Behn (b. 2005, d4)
  7. Emma Tallulah Behn (b. 2008, d4)

Spain

  1. HRH Infante Felipe of Spain, Prince of Asturias (b. 1968, s0)
  2. HRH Infanta Leonor of Spain (b. 2005, d1)
  3. HRH Infanta Sofia of Spain (b. 2007, d1)
  4. HRH Infanta Elena of Spain, Duchess of Lugo (b. 1963, d0)
  5. HE Felipe de Marichalar y de Borbón (b. 1998, s4)
  6. HE Victoria Federica de Marichalar y de Borbón (b. 2000, d4)
  7. HRH Infanta Cristina of Spain, Duchess of Palma de Mallorca (b. 1965, d0)
  8. HE Juan Urdangarin y de Borbón (b. 1999, s7)
  9. HE Pablo Urdangarin y de Borbón (b. 2000, s7)
  10. HE Miguel Urdangarin y de Borbón (b. 2002, s7)
  11. HE Irene Urdangarin y de Borbón (b. 2005, d7)

Sweden

  1. HRH Crown Princess Victoria of Sweden, Duchess of Västergötland (b. 1977, d0)
  2. HRH Princess Estelle of Sweden (b. 2012, d1)
  3. HRH Prince Carl Philip of Sweden, Duke of Värmland (b. 1979, s0)
  4. HRH Princess Madeleine of Sweden, Duchess of Hälsingland and Gästrikland (b. 1982, d0)

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5. Laws of succession for the current European monarchies.

Sources: Le Petit Gotha (1993) and the "International Constitutional Law" website at: http://www.oefre.unibe.ch/law/icl/home.html

Belgium

  • religion:
  • marriage must be with consent of:
    the King
  • must contract a lawful marriage:
  • type of succession law:
    Cognatic (Absolute) Primogeniture (see note) in effect since 1991 (applicable to the descent of King Albert II; formerly, Salic Law)

Denmark

(Constitution, latest revision 1953; law of succession to the throne, 27 March 1953; revised June 14, 2009).
  • religion:
    Lutheran Evangelical Church (for the King, Const. II.6)
  • marriage must be with consent of:
    the Parliament (for the monarch) the Sovereign with the Council of Ministers (for all other eventual heirs)
  • must contract a lawful marriage:
    yes
  • type of succession law:
    Cognatic (Absolute) Primogeniture (see note) (was semi-Salic from 1660 to 1863, Salic from 1863 to 1953, primogeniture from 1953 to 2009)

Liechtenstein

  • religion:
    Roman Catholic (for the Sovereign Prince)
  • marriage must be with consent of:
    the Sovereign Prince
  • must contract a lawful marriage:
    yes
  • type of succession law:
    Semi-Salic Law (see note)

Luxembourg

  • religion:
  • marriage must be with consent of:
    the Grand Duke (for the princes of the family)
  • must contract a lawful marriage:
  • type of succession law:
    Absolute Primogeniture (since 2011; previously Semi-Salic Law)

Monaco

(Constitution of 17 Dec 1962, revised 2 Apr 2002; House laws of May 15, 1882 modified by ordonnances of 30 and 31 Oct 1918 and 1959)
  • religion:
  • marriage must be with consent of:
    the Sovereign Prince (however, if a prince or princess marries without the consent of the Sovereign Prince, no children are born and the marriage is dissolved, then the prince recovers dynastic rights)
  • must contract a lawful marriage:
  • other:
    - The crown is hereditary in the legitimate issue of the previous prince, or failing that, in the issue of his or her siblings; in the absence of heir, the Crown Council appoints a collateral heir who must be of monegasque citizenship.
  • type of succession law:
    Primogeniture (see note)

Netherlands

  • religion:
  • marriage must be with consent of:
    the Parliament
  • must contract a lawful marriage:
  • type of succession law:
    Cognatic (Absolute) Primogeniture (see note) in effect since 1983
  • other:
    - the degrees of relationship between a new monarch and the predecessor cannot be more than 3.

Norway

  • religion:
    Evangelical Lutheran faith (the King must always belong to this faith)
  • marriage must be with consent of:
    the King
  • must contract a lawful marriage:
  • other:
    - a royal prince cannot accept the crown of another country unless he first seeks the consent of Parliament
  • type of succession law:
    Cognatic (Absolute) Primogeniture (see note) in effect since 1990 & beginning with descendants of Crown Prince Haakon (b. 1973) with an exception made for Princess Märtha Louise so as to not displace her younger brother which is what happened in Sweden in 1980 (formerly, Salic Law)

Spain

  • religion:
    - marriage cannot occur against express prohibition of: the King and the Parliament (for all those who have a right to the succession)
  • must contract a lawful marriage:
    must also be a Roman Catholic marriage
  • type of succession law:
    Primogeniture (see note)

Sweden

  • religion:
    Lutheran (for the King & princes of the royal family)
  • marriage must be with consent of:
    the King with the advice of the Council of Ministers (for princes & princesses) must contract a lawful marriage:
  • type of succession law:
    Cognatic (Absolute) Primogeniture (see note) in effect since 1980 (formerly, Salic Law)

Notes On Types of Laws of Succession

Salic Law (a.k.a. agnatic):
- the law "which entirely excludes females from the hereditary succession" (The Monarchy and the Constitution, by Vernon Bogdanor, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1995, page 42)
- applicable to Albania, Bulgaria, France (Royal; Empire), Italy, Montenegro, Parma, Prussia (and German Empire), Roumania, Yugoslavia
Semi-Salic Law:
- in which the succession is reserved firstly to all the male dynastic descendants of all the eligible branches by order of primogeniture, then upon total extinction of these male descendants to the eldest of the dynastic female descendants
- applicable to Liechtenstein, Luxembourg; also applicable to Austria, Bavaria, Hanover, Russia, Saxony, Tuscany, Two Sicilies, Württemberg
Primogeniture:
- the law in which "male heirs take precedence over female, with children representing their deceased ancestors; and under the rule of primogeniture, the older son precedes the younger" (The Monarchy and the Constitution, by Vernon Bogdanor, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1995, page 42)
- applicable to Monaco, Spain, United Kingdom; also applicable to Brazil, Greece, Portugal
Cognatic (absolute) Primogeniture:
- the law in which "the right of succession passes to the eldest child of the sovereign, regardless of gender, females enjoying the same right of succession as males" (The Monarchy and the Constitution, by Vernon Bogdanor, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1995, page 42)
- applicable to Belgium, Denmark, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden

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6. Lines of succession to the current non-European Thrones.

This section was prepared using The International Who's Who, 1992-93, 56th edition, and Burke's Royal Families of the World, Vol. II, 1980, with complements from the Almanach de Bruxelles and C. Buyers's Royal Ark. Although the people listed in the following lines of succession are members of their respective families, it is not always certain if these people actually hold a place in the line of succession.

Bahrain

  1. Sheikh Salman, Crown Prince, son of the King (b. 1969)
  2. oldest son of Sheikh Salman
  3. younger son of Sheikh Salman
  4. Sheikh Abdullah, son of the King (b. 1975)
  5. Sheikh Khalifa, son of the King (b. 1977)

Bhutan

    son of the King (due to succeed in 2008) -->

Brunei

  1. HRH Crown Prince Haji al-Muhtadee Billah (b. 1977), eldest son of the Sultan

Japan

(see Note 1)
  1. HIH Crown Prince Naruhito (b. 1960), son of the Emperor
  2. HIH Prince Akishino (b. 1965), son of the Emperor
  3. HIH Prince Hisahito (b. 2006), son of Prince Akishino
  4. HIH Prince Hitachi (b. 1935), brother of the Emperor
  5. HIH Prince Mikasa (b. 1915), uncle of the Emperor
  6. HIH Prince Mikasa Tomohito (b. 1946), son of Prince Mikasa
  7. HIH Prince Katsura (b. 1948), son of Prince Mikasa

Jordan

The throne of the Kingdom is passed on through inheritance within the dynasty of King Abdullah Ibn Al Hussein (first king and great-grandfather of the present king Abdullah), in the direct line of his male heirs. The King designated his eldest son HRH Prince Hussein Ben Adbullah as Crown Prince on July 2, 2009. The brother of the present king, Prince Hamzah, was Crown Prince from Feb 7, 1999 to Nov 28, 2004.
  1. HRH Prince Hussein, Crown Prince (Jul 2, 2009) (b. Jun 28, 1994), son of the King

Kuwait

  1. Sheikh Nawaf al-Ahmad al-Sabah, Crown Prince (from 7 Feb 2006) (b. 1937)

Lesotho

Malaysia

The Malaysian throne is elective and rotating among the rulers of the member states of the Federation (see art. 38 of the constitution of Malaysia).

Morocco

The Moroccan Crown and the constitutional rights thereof shall be hereditary and handed down, from father to son, to descendants in direct male line and by order of primogeniture among the offspring of His Majesty King Hassan II, unless the King should, during his lifetime, designate a successor among his sons apart from the eldest one. In case of failing descendants in direct male line, the right of succession to the Throne shall, under the same conditions, be invested in the closest male in the collateral consanguinity. (art. 20 of the constitution of 1996)

  1. HRH Prince Moulay Hassan (b. 2003), son of the King
  2. HRH Prince Moulay Rachid (b. 1970), brother of the King

Oman

Saudi Arabia

(see Note 2)
  1. HRH Prince Sultan ibn Abdul Aziz, Crown Prince (b. 1924?), younger brother of the King

Swaziland

(see Note 3)

Thailand

  1. HRH Prince Vajiralongkorn, Crown Prince (from December 1972) (b. 1952), son of the King

Tonga

  1. HRH Prince Tupouto'a Lavaka (b. 1959), brother of the King

United Arab Emirates

Notes:
  • 1. the Imperial Household Law (1947) governs the succession; only legitimate male descendants of an emperor can succeed; type of succession law: Salic Law
  • 2. in Saudi Arabia, no more than one heir is named at a time, apparently
  • 3. in Swaziland, the heir to the throne is only chosen after a King's death from among his younger sons

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7. What are the differences between HRH, HH and HSH?

Because the answer to this question is now formatted using tables, which don't 'translate' well when viewed as a text document, Part A - the Styles of Sovereigns, and Part B - the Styles of Children of Sovereigns can be viewed at this URL:
http://www.heraldica.org/faqs/styles.html

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8. What are the styles and titles of the world's current monarchs?

The styles and titles of the world's current monarchs depend whether they are sovereigns of a kingdom, a principality, a grand duchy, an empire, etc...
Bahrain:
  • type: kingdom
  • style: His Majesty (HM)
  • title: King (Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa)
Belgium:
  • type: kingdom
  • style: His Majesty (HM)
  • title: The King (Philippe)
Bhutan:
  • type: kingdom
  • style: His Majesty (HM)
  • title: Druk Gyalpo (Dragon King) (Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuk)
Brunei:
  • type: sultanate
  • style: His Majesty (HM)
  • title: Sultan and Yang di Pertuan (Haji Hassanal Bolkiah)
Cambodia:
  • type: kingdom
  • style: His Majesty (HM)
  • title: The King (Norodom Sihanouk)
Denmark:
  • type: kingdom
  • style: Her Majesty (HM)
  • title: The Queen (Margrethe II)
Japan:
  • type: empire
  • style: His Imperial Majesty (HIM)
  • title: The Emperor (Akihito)
Jordan:
  • type: kingdom
  • style: His Majesty (HM)
  • title: The King (Abdallah)
Kuwait:
  • type: emirate
  • style: His Highness (HH)
  • title: Emir (Sabah Al-Ahmad Al-Sabah)
Lesotho:
  • type: kingdom
  • style: His Majesty (HM)
  • title: The King (Letsie III)
Liechtenstein:
  • type: principality
  • style: His Serene Highness (HSH)
  • title: The Prince (Hans Adam II)
Luxembourg:
  • type: grand duchy
  • style: His Royal Highness (HRH)
  • title: The Grand Duke (Henri)
Malaysia:
    (see Note 1)
  • type: federation of states
  • style: His Majesty (HM)
  • title: Supreme Head of State (Yang di-Pertuan Agong) (Ja'afar)
Monaco:
  • type: principality
  • style: His Serene Highness (HSH)
  • title: The Prince (Albert II)
Morocco:
  • type: kingdom
  • style: His Majesty (HM)
  • title: The King (Mohammed VI)
Netherlands
    :
  • type: kingdom
  • style: His Majesty (HM)
  • title: The King (Willem-Alexander)
Norway:
  • type: kingdom
  • style: His Majesty (HM)
  • title: The King (Harald V)
Oman:
  • type: sultanate
  • style: His Majesty (HM)
  • title: Sultan (Qaboos bin Said)
Qatar:
  • type: emirate
  • style: His Highness (HH)
  • title: Emir (Tamim bin Hamad al-Thani)
Saudi Arabia:
  • type: kingdom
  • style: His Majesty (HM)
  • title: The King (Abdullah)
Spain:
  • type: kingdom
  • style: His Majesty (HM)
  • title: The King (Juan Carlos I)
Swaziland:
  • type: kingdom
  • style: His Majesty (HM)
  • title: The King (Mswati III)
Sweden:
  • type: kingdom
  • style: His Majesty (HM)
  • title: The King (Carl XVI Gustaf)
Thailand:
  • type: kingdom
  • style: His Majesty (HM)
  • title: The King (Bhumibol)
Tonga:
  • type: kingdom
  • style: His Majesty (HM)
  • title: The King (King Siaosi Tupou V)
United Arab Emirates:
    (see Note 2)
  • type: emirate
  • style: His Highness (HH)
  • title: President (Sheikh Khalifa bin Zayed al-Nahyan)
Notes:
  • 1. The nine Hereditary Malay rulers are as follows:
    1. Raja of Perlis and Yang di-Pertuan Agong of Malaysia: Tuanku Syed SIRAJUDDIN Ibni Almarhum Tuanku Syed Putra Jamalullail, born 16 May 1943, acceded 17 April 2000 (on the death of his father Tuanku Syed Putra Ibni Al-Marhum Syed Hassan Jamalullail, who was 3rd Yang di-Pertuan Agong 1960-1965 and was ruling when Malaya united with Sabah and Sarawak to form Malaysia in 1963); became 12th Yang di-Pertuan Agong 12 Dec 2001.
    2. Sultan of Selangor: Sultan Tengku Idris Shah ibni Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Shah (born 24 December 1945), acceded 22 Nov 2001 (on the death of his father Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Shah Alhaj Ibni Almarhum Sultan Hisamuddin Alam Shah Alhaj, who was 11th Yang di-Pertuan Agong from 1999 to his death).
    3. Sultan of Terengganu: Sultan MIZAN ZAINAL ABIDIN Ibni Almarhum Sultan Mahmud Al-Muktafi Billah Shah, born 22 January 1962, acceded 15 May 1998 (grandson and second successor of Tuanku Ismail Nasiruddin Shah Ibni Al-Marhum Sultan Zainal Abidin, who was 4th Yang di-Pertuan Agong 1965-70). Became Timbalan Yang di-Pertuan Agong (vice-king) in April 1999.
    4. Sultan of Kedah: Al-Sultan Almu’tasimu Billahi Muhibbuddin Tuanku Alhaj ABDUL HALIM MU’ADZAM SHAH ibni Al-Marhum Sultan Badlishah, born 28 November 1927, acceded 14 July 1958; was 5th Yang di-Pertuan Agong 1970-1975.
    5. Sultan of Kelantan: Tuanku ISMAIL PETRA ibni Al-Marhum Sultan Yahya Petra, born 11 November 1949, acceded 30 March 1979 (on the death of his father Tuanku Yahya Petra Ibni Al-Marhum Sultan Ibrahim, who was 6th Yang di-Pertuan Agong 1975-1979).
    6. Sultan of Pahang: Sultan Haji AHMAD SHAH Al-Musta’in Billah ibni Al-Marhum Sultan Abu Bakar Ri’Ayatuddin Al-Mu’adzam Shah, born 24th October 1930, acceded 7 May 1974; was 7th Yang di-Pertuan Agong 1979-1984.
    7. Sultan of Johor: Sultan (MAHMUD) ISKANDAR Al-Haj Ibni Almarhum Sultan Ismail, born 8 April 1932, acceded 11th May 1981; was 8th Yang di-Pertuan Agong 1984-1989.
    8. Sultan of Perak: Paduka Seri Sultan AZLAN MUHIBBUDDIN SHAH ibni Almarhum Sultan Yussuf Izzuddin Shah Ghafarullahu-lah, born 19 April 1928, acceded 3 February 1984; was 9th Yang di-Pertuan Agong 1989-1994.
    9. Yang di-Pertuan Besar of Negeri Sembilan: Tuanku JA’AFAR Ibni Almarhum Tuanku Abdul Rahman, born 19 July 1922, acceded 19 April 1967 (son and second successor of Tuanku Abdul Rahman Ibni Al-Marhum Tuanku Muhammad, who was the first Yang di-Pertuan Agong of Malaya 1957-1960); was 10th Yang di-Pertuan Agong 1994-1999; Negeri Sembilan is a federation of six (originally nine) states but the throne is hereditary in this family.
      Sources:
      www.penerangan.gov.my
      www.almanak.com.my
      www.dreamwater.net/regiment/RoyalArk
  • 2. The seven Emirs of the United Arab Emirates are as follows:
    1. Abu Dhabi: HH Sheikh Khalifa bin Sultan al-Nahyan (President of the U.A.E.), acceded 2004 on the death of his father Sheikh Zayed;
    2. Dubai: HH Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid al-Maktoum acceeded 2006 on the death of his brother Maktoum (Vice President of the UAE)
    3. Sharjah: HH Sheikh Sultan bin Mohammed al-Qassimi, acceded 1972 after his brother Khalid was killed by forces loyal to their cousin Saqr bin Sultan who had been deposed 1965 (Sharjah had been divided in 1866 among the chief Sheikh's four sons into Sharjah, Ras al-Khaimah, Kalba (absorbed into Sharjah 1952) and Dibba)
    4. Ras al-Khaimah: HH Sheikh Saqr bin Mohammed al-Qassimi, acceded 1948
    5. Umm al-Qaiwan: HH Sheikh Rashid bin Ahmed al-Mualla, acceded 1981, his father had reigned since 1920s
    6. Ajman: HH Sheikh Humaid bin Rashid al-Nuaimi, acceded 1981, his father had reigned since 1920s
    7. Fujairah: HH Sheikh Hamad bin Mohammed al-Sharqi, acceded 1974

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9. What are the full titles of the current European monarchs?

Belgium
HM Philippe, King of the Belgians, Prince of Belgium (S.M. Philippe, Roi des Belges, prince de Belgique)
Denmark
HM Margrethe II, by the Grace of God, Denmark's Queen
Liechtenstein
HSH Hans Adam II, by the Grace of God, Sovereign Prince of Liechtenstein, Duke of Troppau and Jägerndorf, Count of Rietberg
Luxembourg
HRH Henri Grand Duke of Luxembourg, Duke of Nassau, Prince of Bourbon of Parma, Count Palatine of the Rhine, Count of Sayn, of Königstein, of Katzenelnbogen, and of Dietz, Burgrave of Hammerstein, Lord of Mahlberg, of Wiesbaden, of Idstein, of Merenberg, of Limburg, of Eppstein.
Grand Duke Henri discontinued the use of the phrase "by the grace of God".
Monaco
HSH Albert II, Prince of Monaco, Duc de Valentinois, Marquis des Baux, Comte de Carlades, Baron de Buis, Seigneur de Saint-Rémy, Sire de Matignon, Comte de Thorigny, Baron de Saint-Lô, de la Luthumière et de Hambye, Duc d'Estouteville, de Mazarin et de Mayenne, Prince de Château-Porcien, Comte de Ferrette, de Belfort, de Thann et de Rosemont, Baron d'Altkirch, Seigneur d'Isenheim, Marquis de Chilly, Comte de Longjumeau, Baron de Massy, Marquis de Guiscard
Netherlands
HM Willem-Alexander, by the Grace of God, King of the Netherlands, Prince of Orange-Nassau, Jonkheer Van Amsberg (etc...)
Norway
HM Harald V, King of Norway
Spain
HM Juan Carlos I, King of Spain (according to the 1978 Constitution; however, the titles borne by previous Kings of Spain have not been abolished; thus: His Catholic Majesty Juan Carlos, By the Grace of God, King of Spain, Castile, Leon, Aragon, the Two Sicilies, of Jerusalem, Navarre, Granada, Toledo, Valencia, Galicia, Mallorca, Menorca, Seville, Cardeñ;a, Cordoba, Cocega, Murcia, Jaen, Algeria, Algernon, Gibraltar, the East and West Indies, the Canary Islands, and the Oceanic Colonies, Archduke of Austria, Duke of Burgundy, Brabant and Milan, Count of Habsburg, Flanders, Tirol and Barcelona, Lord of Vizcaya and Molina)
Sweden
HM Carl XVI Gustaf, King of Sweden

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10. Formerly-reigning monarchs and present-day claimants in Europe and the Americas since 1849.

In this list, one will find first, the formerly-reigning monarch or the present-day claimant [when known], and second, the year when the monarchy ceased to reign.

In some instances, there are two claimants. The order in which the two claimants are listed is determined randomly each time this file is read.

Those who once reigned will be refered to as 'King N'. Those who have never reigned (be they Crown Prince, Hereditary Grand Duke, or only a claimant) will be refered to as 'Titular King N'. In the cases of Simeon II of Bulgaria and Constantine II of the Hellenes (who have never abdicated) and Michael of Roumania (who was forced to abdicate), it is correct to continue to refer to them as King and incorrect to refer to them as ex-King. According to the late Sir Iain Moncreiffe of that Ilk: "A king who has not abdicated remains a king, even though his power may not extend de facto over a former realm." (David Williamson, Co-Editor of Debrett's Peerage, in a letter to the editor of 'The Daily Telegraph' of 2 July 1987.) Even for kings who have abdicated, the custom is that they continue to enjoy their former styles.

Albania
  • Leka II, Titular King of the Albanians (b. 1982)
  • 1946: when the monarchy was abolished
Anhalt
  • Eduard II, Titular Duke of Anhalt (b. 1941)
  • 1918: when Prince Aribert of Anhalt, Regent of the Duchy of Anhalt, abdicated in the name of Joachim Ernst, Duke of Anhalt
Austria
Baden
  • Maximilian (Max), Margrave of Baden (Maximilian, Titular Grand Duke of Baden) (b. 1933)
  • 1918: when Friedrich II, Grand Duke of Baden abdicated
Bavaria
  • Franz, Duke of Bavaria (Franz, Titular King of Bavaria) (b. 1933)
  • 1918: when the throne was lost through the revolution
Brazil
  • rival claimants:
    • Pedro Carlos, Prince of Orleans e Bragança (b. 1945)
    • Luíz Gastao, Prince of Orleans e Bragança (Luíz I, Titular Emperor of Brazil) (b. 1938)
  • 1889: when Dom Pedro II, Emperor of Brazil, was deposed following a military uprising
Brunswick
  • Ernst August, Prince of Hanover (Ernst August, Titular Duke of Brunswick) (b. 1954)
  • 1918: when Ernst August, Duke of Brunswick and Lüneburg abdicated (see also Hanover)
Bulgaria
  • Simeon II, King of the Bulgarians (b. 1937)
  • 1946: when King Simeon II left the country, without having abdicated, following a communist-rigged plebiscite
France
    Monarchy
    • rival claimants:
      • Luís Alfonso de Borbón y Martínez-Bordiú, duc d'Anjou (Louis XX, Titular King of France) (b. 1974)
      • Henri, Comte de Paris (Henri VII, Titular King of France) (b. 1933)
    • 1830: when Charles X abdicated following a revolution
    • 1848: when Louis Philippe I abdicated following a revolution
    Empire
    • Charles, Prince Napoléon (Charles, Titular Emperor of the French) (b. 1950)
    • 1870: when Emperor Napoléon III was deposed
    Greece
    • Constantine II, King of the Hellenes (b. 1940)
    • 1974: when a plebiscite decided against the return of King Constantine II (had been deposed in 1973)
    Hanover
    • Ernst August, Prince of Hanover (Ernst August V, Titular King of Hanover) (b. 1954)
    • 1866: when Hanover was annexed to Prussia (see also Brunswick)
    Hesse
      (a) Hesse-Cassel
      • Moritz, Landgrave of Hesse (Moritz, Titular Elector of Hesse) (b. 1926)
      • 1866: when Friedrich Wilhelm, Elector of Hesse lost his Throne when the Electorate of Hesse was annexed to the Kingdom of Prussia
      (b) Hesse-Philippsthal
      (not regnant after 1815)
      • the line of Landgraves of H.-P. became extinct in 1925
      (c) Hesse-Philippsthal-Barchfeld
      (not regnant after 1815)
      • Wilhelm, Prince and Landgrave of Hesse (b. 1933)
      (d) Hesse and by Rhine
      • Moritz, Landgrave of Hesse (b. 1926) (had been adopted in 1960/ 1961 by Ludwig V, Titular Grand Duke of Hesse and by Rhine)
      • 1918: when Ernst Ludwig, Grand Duke of Hesse and by Rhine lost his throne on the proclamation of the Republic of Hesse
      (e) Hesse-Homburg
      • the line of Landgraves of H.-H. became extinct in 1866
      Hohenzollern
        (a) Hohenzollern-Hechingen
        • Friedrich Wilhelm, Prince of H.-H. ceded his sovereign rights to the King of Prussia in December 1849
        (b) Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen
        • Friedrich Wilhelm, Titular Prince of Hohenzollern (b. 1924)
        • Karl Anton, Prince of H.-S., later Prince of H., ceded his sovereign rights to the King of Prussia in December 1849
        Italy
        • Victor Emanuel, Prince of Naples (Vittorio Emanuele IV, Titular King of Italy) (b. 1937)
        • 1946: when King Umberto II left the country (following a referendum which showed a majority in favour of a republic)
        Lippe
          (a) Lippe (-Detmold)
          • the Princes of Lippe became extinct in the male line in 1905
          (b) Lippe-Biesterfeld
          • Friedrich Wilhelm, Titular Prince of Lippe (b. 1947)
          • 1918: when Leopold IV, Prince of Lippe abdicated
          Mecklenburg
            (a) Mecklenburg-Schwerin
            • Friedrich Franz, Hereditary Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (Friedrich Franz V, Titular Grand Duke of M.-S.) (1910-2001)
              The male line is now extinct; but see below
            • 1918 (Nov): when Friedrich Franz IV, Grand Duke of M.-S. renounced the throne
            (b) Mecklenburg-Strelitz
            • same as M.-Schwerin since 1918
            • 1918 (Feb): when the throne became vacant on the death of Adolf Friedrich VI, Grand Duke of M.-S.
            (c) Mecklenburg
            • Georg Friedrich, Prince of Prussia (Georg Friedrich, Titular German Emperor, King of Prussia, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg) (b. 1976)
              by virtue of a 1442 succession pact, the claim to Mecklenburg reverted to the margraves of Brandenburg on extinction of the dynasty in 2001
            Mexico
              (House of Habsburg-Lorraine)
            • 1867: when Maximilian I, Emperor of Mexico was shot and the country became a republic
            Modena
            • 1860: when Francesco V, Duke of Modena lost his throne when Modena was annexed to the Kingdom of Sardinia
            Montenegro
            • Nicholas, Prince Petrovic-Njegos of Montenegro (Nicholas II, Titular King of Montenegro) (b. 1944)
            • 1918: when Montenegro was annexed to the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (later, Yugoslavia)
            Nassau
            • 1866: when Adolf, Duke of Nassau lost his throne when Nassau was annexed to the Kingdom of Prussia (he later succeeded as Grand Duke of Luxembourg in 1890)
            Oldenburg
            • Anton Günther, Duke of Oldenburg (Anton Günther, Titular Grand Duke of Oldenburg) (b. 1923)
            • 1918: when Friedrich August, Grand Duke of Oldenburg renounced the throne
            Parma
            • Carlos, Titular Duke of Parma (b. 1970)
            • 1859: when the Duchy of Parma was annexed to the Kingdom of Sardinia
            Portugal
            • Duarte, Duke of Braganza (Duarte III, Titular King of Portugal and the Algarves) (b. 1945)
            • 1910: when King Manoel II lost the Throne through the revolution
            Prussia
            • Georg Friedrich, Prince of Prussia (Georg Friedrich, Titular German Emperor, King of Prussia) (b. 1976)
            • 1918: when German Emperor Wilhelm II abdicated (see also Mecklenburg)
            Reuss
              I. Reuss Elder Line (Reuss-Greiz)
              • 1918: when Heinrich XXIV, Prince Reuss zu Greiz renounced the throne (the Elder Line of the House of Reuss became extinct in 1927)
              II. Reuss Younger Line
              (a) Reuss-Schleiz
              • Heinrich VIII, Titular Prince Reuss zu Schleiz (b. 1944)
              • 1918: when Heinrich XXVII, Prince R. zu S. renounced the throne
              (b) Reuss-Schleiz-Köstritz
              • Heinrich IV, Titular Fürst Reuss (on his father's death 1946 but not fully recognized as such until 1962 with effect from 1953)
              Roumania
              • Michael, King of Roumania (b. 1921)
              • 1947: when King Michael was forced to abdicate
              Russia
              • rival claimants:
                • Prince Nicholas Romanov (b. 1922)
                • Grand Duchess Maria Wladimirovna of Russia (Maria, Titular Empress and Autocrat of All the Russias) (b. 1953)
              • 1917: when Emperor Nicholas II abdicated
              Saxon duchies
                (a) Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach
                • Michael-Benedict, Prince of S.-W.-E. (Titular Grand Duke of S.-W.-E.) (b. 1946)
                • 1918: when Wilhelm Ernst, Grand Duke of S.-W.-E. lost the throne
                (b) Saxe-Meiningen
                • Friedrich-Konrad, Titular Duke of S.-M. (b. 1952)
                • 1918: when Bernhard III, Duke of S.-M. abdicated
                (c) Saxe-Altenburg
                • the Ducal House of Saxe-Altenburg became extinct in 1991
                • 1918: when Ernst II, Duke of Saxe-Altenburg renounced the throne
                (d) Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
                • Andreas, Titular Duke of S.-C. and G. (b. 1943)
                • 1918: when Karl Eduard, Duke of S.-C. and G. abdicated
                Royal Saxony
                • Maria Emanuel, Margrave of Meissen (Maria Emanuel, Titular King of Saxony) (b. 1926)
                • 1918: when King Friedrich August III renounced the Throne
                Schaumburg-Lippe
                • Alexander Christian, Titular Prince of S.-L. (b. 1958)
                • 1918: when Adolf II, Prince of S.-L. renounced the throne
                Schleswig-Holstein

                (present Glücksburg branch not regnant since the 17th c. but listed because of its branches in Russia, Oldenburg and Denmark)
                  (a) Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg
                  • 1931: when the Augustenburg line of the family became extinct
                  (b) Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg
                  • Christoph, Prince of S.-H.-S.-G. (Christoph, Titular Duke of S.-H.-S.-G.) (b. 1949)
                  Schwarzburg
                    (a) Schwarzburg-Sonderhausen
                    • 1909: when the male line of S.-S. became extinct
                    (b) Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt
                    • 1918: when Gunther, Prince of S. abdicated
                    • 1971: the Princely House of Schwarzburg became extinct in male line
                      Note: Schwarzburg had semi-Salic succession, so a potential claimant would be Friedrich Magnus, Graf zu Solms- Wildenfels, (b. 1927)
                    Tuscany
                    • Sigismund, Titular Grand Duke of Tuscany (b. 1966) (see Note 2)
                    • 1860: when Ferdinando IV, Grand Duke of Tuscany lost his throne when Tuscany was united to the Kingdom of Sardinia
                    Two Sicilies
                    • rival claimants:
                      • Carlos, Duke of Calabria (Carlo VIII, Titular King of the Kingdom of Naples and Sicily) (b. 1938)
                      • Carlo, Duke of Castro (Carlo IX, Titular King of the Kingdom of The Two Sicilies) (b. 1963)
                    • 1860: when The Two Sicilies were annexed to the new Kingdom of Italy
                    Waldeck and Pyrmont
                    • Wittekind, Titular Prince of Waldeck and Pyrmont (b. 1936)
                    • 1918: when Friedrich, Prince of Waldeck and Pyrmont abdicated
                    Württemberg
                    • Carl, Duke of Württemberg (Carl II, Titular King of Württemberg) (b. 1936)
                    • 1918: when King Wilhelm II abdicated
                    Yugoslavia
                    • Alexander, Crown Prince of Yugoslavia (Alexander II, Titular King of Yugoslavia) (b. 1945)
                    • 1945: when the monarchy was abolished
                    Notes:
                    1. On 31 May 1961, by written declaration, Archduke Otto renounced his rights to the Austrian throne as well as his membership in the House of Habsburg-Lorraine and declared himself to be a citizen of Austria. This 'political fiction' was done for the benefit of the Austrian republic and to allow Otto to journey to Austria whenever he so wished. This "renunciation" was viewed as such and understood for what it was by the members of the Imperial family. (Les Manuscrits du C.E.D.R.E.: L'Empire d'Autriche, volume III, 1991, page 69.)
                    2. On 12 April 1994, Leopold III, Titular Grand Duke of Tuscany, abdicated as Titular Grand Duke in favor of his elder son, Archduke Sigismund; his civil remarriage after a divorce conflicted with heading the Roman Catholic order of St. Stephen.

                    Back to Table of Contents


                    11. When did the world's current monarchs succeed?

                    Here are the dates of succession of the world's presently reigning monarchs:
                    Bahrain
                    - Shaikh Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa succeeded upon the death of his father Shaikh Isa bin Sulman al-Khalifa on 6 March 1999. The constitution promulgated on 14 Feb 2002 defines Bahrain to be a kingdom.
                    Belgium
                    - King Philippe succeeded upon the abdication of his father King Albert II on 21 July 2013
                    Bhutan
                    - Druk Gyalpo ("Dragon King") Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuk succeeded upon the abdication of his father Druk Gyalpo Jigme Singye Wangchuk on 14 Dec 2006 (crowned 2 June 1974)
                    Brunei
                    - Sultan Haji Hassanal Bolkiah succeeded upon the abdication of his father Sultan Haji Omar Ali Saifuddien III on 4 October 1967 (crowned 1 August 1968)
                    Cambodia
                    - King Norodom Sihamoni was elevated to the throne on Oct 14, 2004 following the abdication of his father King Norodom Sihanouk
                    Denmark
                    - Queen Margrethe II succeeded upon the death of her father King Frederik IX on 14 January 1972
                    Japan
                    - Emperor Akihito succeed upon the death of his father Emperor Hirohito (known posthumously as Emperor Showa) on 7 January 1989 (crowned 12 November 1990)
                    Jordan
                    - King Abdullah succeeded upon the death of his father King Hussein on 7 February 1999
                    Kuwait
                    - Sheikh Sabah Al-Ahmad Al-Sabah succeeded Sheikh Saad Al-Abdullah Al-Salem Al-Sabah on the latter's deposition/abdication on Jan 24, 2006
                    Lesotho
                    - King Letsie III succeeded as King on 7 February 1996 following death of his father King Moshoeshoe (on 15 January 1996) current reign (crowned 31 October 1997)
                    N.B.: King Letsie III had previously been King from November 1990 to January 1995
                    Liechtenstein
                    - Prince Hans Adam II succeeded upon the death of his father Prince Franz Josef II on 13 November 1989
                    Luxembourg
                    - Grand Duke Henri succeeded upon the abdication of his father Grand Duke Jean on 7 October 2000
                    Malaysia
                    - Sultan Tuanku Syed Sirajuddin Syed Putra Jamalulla was installed as Yang di-Pertuan Agong (King of Malaysia) on 12 Dec 2001
                    Monaco
                    - Prince Albert II succeeded upon the death of his father Prince Rainier III on 6 Apr 2005
                    Morocco
                    - King Mohammed VI succeeded upon the death of his father King Hassan II on 23 July 1999
                    Nepal
                    The monarchy was abolished May 28, 2008.
                    Netherlands
                    - King Willem-Alexander succeeded upon the abdication of his mother Queen Beatrix on 30 April 2013
                    Norway
                    - King Harald V succeeded upon the death of his father King Olav on 17 January 1991 (sworn in on 21 January 1991; consecration on 23 June 1991)
                    Oman
                    - Sultan Qaboos assumed power after deposing his father Sultan Said bin Taimur on 23 July 1970
                    Qatar
                    - Sheikh Tamim bin Hamad al-Thani succeeded upon the abdication of hiS father Sheikh Hamad bin Khalifa al-Thani on 25 June 2012
                    Saudi Arabia
                    - King Abdullah succeeded upon the death of his brother King Fahd on 1 August 2005
                    Spain
                    - King Juan Carlos I was proclaimed king following the death of Generalissimo Francisco Franco, Chief of State, on 22 November 1975
                    N.B.: at this time, King Juan Carlos's father, Don Juan, Count of Barcelona, was de jure King of Spain; it wasn't until 14 May 1977 that Don Juan renounced his rights
                    Swaziland
                    - King Mswati III was installed as ruler on 25 April 1986 (his father King Sobhuza II died on 21 August 1982)
                    Sweden
                    - King Carl XVI Gustaf succeeded upon the death of his grandfather King Gustaf VI Adolf on 15 September 1973
                    Thailand
                    - King Bhumibol succeeded upon the death of his brother King Ananda Mahidol on 9 June 1946 (crowned 5 May 1950)
                    Tonga
                    - King Siaosi Tupou V succeeded upon the death of his father King Taufa'ahau Tupou IV on September 10, 2006
                    United arab emirates
                    - Sheikh Khalifa bin Sultan an-Nahyan, Ruler of Abu Dhabi, took office as President of the U.A.E. on 3 November 2004 I

                    Back to Table of Contents


                    12. Birthdays of the world's current monarchs.

                    See also Netty's Royalty Page which also has anniversaries and birthdays of close relatives.
                    January:
                    5 - Juan Carlos I, King of Spain (b. 1938)
                    28 - Shaikh Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa (b. 1950)
                    30 - Abdullah, King of Jordan (b. 1962)

                    February:
                    14 - Hans Adam II, Prince of Liechtenstein (b. 1945)
                    21 - Harald V, King of Norway (b. 1937)
                    21 - Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuk, King of Bhutan (b. 1980)

                    March:
                    14 - Albert II, Prince of Monaco (b. 1958)

                    April:
                    16 - Margrethe II, Queen of Denmark (b. 1940)
                    16 - Henri, Grand Duke of Luxembourg (b. 1955)
                    19 - Mswati III, King of Swaziland (b. 1968)
                    27 - King Willem-Alexander, King of the Netherlands (b. 1967)
                    30 - Carl XVI Gustaf, King of Sweden (b. 1946)

                    May:
                    4 - King Siaosi Tupou V, king of Tonga 16 - Sultan Tuanku Syed Sirajuddin, king of Malaysia (b. 1943)

                    June:
                    3 - Sheikh Tamim bin Hamad al-Thani, sheikh of Qatar (b. 1980) 6 - Albert II, King of the Belgians (b. 1934)

                    July:
                    15 - Haji Hassanal Bolkiah, Sultan of Brunei (b. 1946)
                    17 - Letsie III, King of Lesotho (b. 1963)

                    August:
                    21 - King Mohammed VI of Morocco (b. 1963)

                    September:

                    October:
                    31 - Norodom Sihanouk, King of Cambodia (b. 1922)

                    November:
                    18 - Qaboos bin Said, Sultan of Oman (b. 1940)

                    December:
                    5 - Bhumibol, King of Thailand (b. 1927)
                    23 - Akihito, Emperor of Japan (b. 1933)

                    N.B.: the following monarchs are not shown because of incomplete dates of birth: King Abdullah of Saudi Arabia (b. 1924), President Sheikh Khalifa of the United Arab Emirates, Sheikh Sabah of Kuwait

                    Back to Table of Contents


                    13. Official Birthdays and National Holidays.

                    Some monarchs have both a real birthday and an official birthday, that is, a birthday which is celebrated publicly on a day other than their day of birth. Not all monarchs have an official birthday.
                    Andorra
                    - official birthday:
                    - national holiday: 8 September
                    Bahrain
                    - official birthday:
                    - national holiday: 16 December
                    Belgium
                    - official birthday:
                    - national holiday: 21 July
                    Bhutan
                    - official birthday:
                    - national holiday: 17 December
                    Brunei
                    - official birthday:
                    - national holiday: 23 February
                    15 July (Sultan's Birthday)
                    Cambodia
                    - official birthday:
                    - national holiday: 9 January
                    Denmark
                    - official birthday:
                    - national holiday: 16 April (which coincides with the Queen's real
                    birthday)
                    Japan
                    - official birthday:
                    - national holiday: 23 December (the Emperor's real birthday)
                    Jordan
                    - official birthday:
                    - national holiday: 14 November (the King's real birthday)
                    Kuwait
                    - official birthday:
                    - national holiday: 25 February
                    Lesotho
                    - official birthday:
                    - national holiday: 2 May (King's Birthday)
                    Liechtenstein
                    - official birthday:
                    - national holiday: 15 August
                    Luxembourg
                    - official birthday: 23 June
                    - national holiday: 23 June
                    Malaysia
                    - official birthday: 3 June (the Yang di-Pertuan Agong)
                    - national birthday: 31 August
                    Monaco
                    - official birthday:
                    - national holiday: 19 November (Fête du Prince)
                    Morocco
                    - official birthday:
                    - national holiday: 23 July (Festival of the Throne, anniversary of King Mohammed's accession)
                    Netherlands
                    - national holiday: 27 April (King's Day; also the King's actual birthday)
                    Norway
                    - official birthday:
                    - national holiday: 17 May
                    Oman
                    - official birthday:
                    - national holiday: 18 November
                    19 November (Birthday of the Sultan)
                    Qatar
                    - official birthday:
                    - national holiday: 27 June (anniversary of the Emir's accession)
                    3 September
                    Saudi Arabia
                    - official birthday:
                    - national holiday: 23 September
                    Spain
                    - official birthday:
                    - national holiday: 12 October
                    Swaziland
                    - official birthday:
                    - national holiday: 19 April (Birthday of King Mswati)
                    Sweden
                    - official birthday:
                    - national holiday: 6 June
                    Thailand
                    - official birthday:
                    - national holiday: 5 December (King's Birthday)
                    Tonga
                    - official birthday:
                    - national holiday: 4 May (The King's Birthday)
                    United Arab Emirates
                    - official birthday:
                    - national holiday: 2 December

                    Back to Table of Contents


                    14. Royal Landmarks (Places of Interest).

                    Eric-Jan Noomen, a member of a.t.r., prepared a list of royal landmarks in 1996. He posted his list to our newsgroup in the spring of 1997 and a revised version of the list can now be found as a separate part of a.t.r.'s FAQ at this URL:
                    http://www.heraldica.org/faqs/landmark.html

                    Back to Table of Contents


                    15. What are the addresses of the world's current monarchs?

                    Before dealing with the addresses, the FAQ wishes to state that it realises some people chafe at etiquette, protocol and conventions. The FAQ does not wish to tell how one must deal with royal correspondence; rather, it suggests the following points:
                    • it is always correct and in good taste to address one's letter and envelope to the Private Secretary (or Equerry or Lady-in-Waiting) to monarchs or other members of royal families
                    • in Scandinavia, where things are less formal, generally speaking, one may address one's letter directly to the Sovereign depending on the nature of one's letter (e.g.: letters of a personal nature); when writing "business-type" letters, addressing such correspondence to the P.S. is preferable
                    • when writing to Private Secretaries, the letter and envelope are written to the Private Secretary by office, not by name
                    • for those who wish, reading Debrett's Correct Form, or Titles and Forms of Address, or even appropriate chapters within etiquette books such as Emily Post's Etiquette and The Amy Vanderbilt Complete Book of Etiquette will be of help
                    ADDRESSES OF SELECTED MONARCHS:
                    • Zayed bin Sultan al-Nahayan, Sheikh of Abu Dhabi
                      Amiri Palace
                      Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates

                    • HM Hamad bin Isa al-Khalifa, King of Bahrain
                      Rifa'a Palace
                      Manama, Bahrain

                    • The Private Secretary to HM The King
                      Palais de Bruxelles
                      B-1000 Brussels, Belgium

                    • HM Gyalpo Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuk, King of Bhutan
                      The Royal Palace
                      Thimphu, Bhutan

                    • HM Haji Hassanal Bolkiah, Sultan of Brunei
                      Istana Darul Hana
                      Brunei

                    • HM Norodom Sihanouk, King of Cambodia
                      Khemarindra Palace
                      Phnom Penh, Cambodia

                    • The Private Secretary to HM The Queen
                      Amalienborg
                      DK-1257 Copenhagen K., Denmark

                    • Mohammed bin Rashid al-Maktoum, Sheikh of Dubai
                      The Royal Palace
                      Dubai, United Arab Emirates

                    • HIM The Emperor of Japan
                      The Imperial Palace
                      1-1 Chiyoda
                      Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo
                      Japan

                    • HM Abdullah, King of Jordan
                      The Royal Palace
                      Amman, Jordan

                    • HH Sheikh Sabah Al-Ahmad Al-Sabah, Emir of Kuwait
                      Sief Palace
                      Amiry Diwan, Kuwait

                    • The Private Secretary to HSH The Prince
                      Schloss Vaduz
                      FL-9490 Vaduz
                      Liechtenstein

                    • The Private Secretary to HRH The Grand Duke
                      Schloss Berg
                      L-2013 Colmar Berg, Luxembourg

                    • The Private Secretary to HSH The Prince
                      Palais de Monaco
                      Boîte Postale 518
                      MC-98015 Monaco-Ville, Monaco

                    • HM Mohammed VI, King of Morocco
                      The Royal Palace
                      Rabat, Morocco

                    • HM The King of the Netherlands
                      Noordeinde 68
                      2514 GL 's-Gravenhage
                      The Netherlands

                    • The Private Secretary to HM The King
                      The Royal Court
                      NO-0010 Oslo, Norway

                    • Qaboos bin Said, Sultan of Oman
                      The Palace
                      Muscat, Sultanate of Oman

                    • Tamim bin Hamad al-Thani, Sheikh of Qatar
                      The Royal Palace
                      Doha, Qatar

                    • HM Abdullah, King of Saudi Arabia
                      Royal Diwan
                      Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

                    • The Private Secretary to HM The King
                      Palacio de la Zarzuela
                      El Pardo
                      E-28048 Madrid, Spain

                    • The Private Secretary to HM The King
                      The Royal Palace
                      S-111 30 Stockholm, Sweden

                    • HM Bhumibol, King of Thailand
                      Chitralada Villa
                      Bangkok, Thailand

                    • HM Siaosi Tupou V, King of Tonga
                      The Palace
                      P.O. Box 6
                      Nuku'alofa, Tonga

                    • Rashid bin Ahmed al-Mu'alla, Sheikh of Uum Al-Qaiwain
                      The Ruler's Palace
                      Uum Al-Qaiwain, United Arab Emirates

                    Back to Table of Contents


                    16. How are the Reuss princes numbered and why are they all named Heinrich?

                    [thanks to William Addams Reitwiesner for letting me adapt his post about the Reuss princes; this post has appeared in alt.talk.royalty on a number of ocassions - November 1995, April 1997 and July 1998 ]

                    There's been a lot of confusion about the Reuss family, especially about how their male members, all of whom are named "Heinrich", are numbered. Here are the facts, based on Isenburg's Europäische Stammtafeln, Band I, Tafel 163-174.

                    The Reuss family divided into two branches, the senior descended from Heinrich XIV (1506-1572) and the junior descended from his youngest half-brother Heinrich XVI (1530-1572).

                    Senior Branch

                    Starting with Heinrich XIV (1506-1572), who was renumbered as Heinrich I, *every* male in the senior line numbered his sons Heinrich I, Heinrich II, Heinrich III, etc. After a while this got clumsy, and starting in about 1640 the entire Senior Branch started numbering its Heinrichs sequentially, based on birth order *within the Branch*, not within the sibship. This continued through 1678 with the birth of Heinrich XVI, and the next birth, in 1693, was Heinrich I. This sequence continued through the entire Senior Branch, which didn't have very many males, down to 1878 with the birth of Heinrich XXIV, the last male of the Senior Branch, who died unmarried in 1927. This Senior Branch is also called "Reuss-Greiz", and a sister of this Heinrich XXIV was Hermine, second wife of Kaiser Wilhelm II.

                    Junior Branch

                    Heinrich XVI died in 1572 leaving daughters and a pregnant wife. This turned out to be a son, Heinrich Posthumous (1572-1635). Heinrich Posthumous had ten sons, Heinrich I through Heinrich X. The grandsons of Heinrich Posthumous started a new sequence with Heinrich I in 1639. This sequence continued for the entire Junior Branch through the birth of Heinrich XXIX in 1699. A new sequence for the Junior Branch started with Heinrich I in 1695 (okay, so it got a little out of order) and continued through the birth of Heinrich LXXV in 1800, then a new sequence started with Heinrich I in 1803 and continued through Heinrich XLVII in 1897. The current sequence started with Heinrich I in 1910 and continues through at least Heinrich XXVI, born in 1988. Territories in this Junior Branch include "Reuss-Gera" (extinct in 1802), "Reuss-Schleiz" (extinct apparently in 1945), "Reuss-Lobenstein" (extinct in 1824), "Reuss-Ebersdorf" (extinct in 1853, Queen Victoria's grandmother was one of these), and Reuss-Köstritz, which itself was divided into three branches (the oldest extinct in 1878 and the younger two still survive). The numbering has never gone higher than Heinrich LXXV (who died age one year, but Heinrich LXXIV lived to be 87). Heinrich Licco is son of a marriage which at various times was considered to be morganatic, which is why (in my opinion) his name is not standard. The family compact of 1887 didn't make the Counts of Plauen "ebenbürtig", it actually un-"ebenbürtig"-ed them (what with the marriage of Heinrich LXIX to Matilda Locke being considered "ebenbürtig" I guess they had to draw the line somewhere), which is why (in my opinion) they and their descendants' names are not standard (even though some of them get numbers).

                    Back to Table of Contents

                    17. What happens when a king dies and his widow is pregnant?

                    It depends on the applicable law of succession. If, under that law, there was an heir apparent at the time of death, than that heir immediately succeeds. If there was only an heir presumptive, then in all likelihood a regency of some kind would be put in place until the birth of the child; a conceivable alternative being a "conditional proclamation" of the heir presumptive (see the Brit-FAQ 2.44). The situation is rarely, if ever, explicitly foreseen in succession laws.

                    Specifically:

                    1. If the deceased king already has at least one son, then, under any existing succession law, the son would immediately succeed.
                    2. If he has no son but at least one daughter, and if absolute primogeniture is the rule, then the eldest one would immediately succeed.
                    3. In all other cases, the unborn child could displace existing heirs presumptive.

                    There are several historical examples:

                    • In 1316, Louis X of France died leaving a daughter and a pregnant widow. The daughter was not called to succeed, but the brother of the deceased became regent until the birth of a son, known as Jean I, who died within days. The regent succeeded him as Philip V.
                    • In 1328, Charles IV of France died leaving a daughter and a pregnant widow. Again, the daughter was excluded, and the heir presumptive Philip of Valois became regent, until the birth of a daughter, after which he was retroactively made king from the death of his predecessor.
                    • In 1885, Alfonso XII of Spain died leaving two daughters and a pregnant widow. The succession law was mixed primogeniture (preference to males). The widow became regent until the birth of a son, who became Alfonso XIII.

                    The case may be paradoxical in the face of such maxims as "the king is dead, long live the king" and the notion of absolute continuity of the throne. In both instances, the throne was vacant for several months. Such a vacancy was avoided in the rather exotic case of Shapur II, Sassanid king of Persia, crowned while in his mother's womb in 309 AD (after magi had assured that the child would be a boy).


                    Part III: Nobility

                    1. What does it mean to be a noble?

                    (I hope readers of the FAQ will bear in mind that this answer cannot enumerate the history, laws or succession rules of every country or title. There are exceptions to every rule on the nobility, and the objective of this section is to provide broad guidelines.)

                    Nobility is, historically, a legally defined status, largely inherited once acquired, and enjoying once extensive privileges which, in modern Europe, have been reduced (except see British sub-FAQ) to nominal membership in the noble class with or without a hereditary title in, e.g., BeNeLux, Denmark, Spain and Sweden. The nobility has been abolished, with varying degrees of governmental tolerance for continued use of once noble attributes, in Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Italy and Portugal. Titles (not nobility) are recognized and protected in France. Titles exist as part of the surname in Germany. Titles are not indigenous to or not permitted in Austria, the Balkans, Greece, Norway, Poland, Switzerland or former constituent states of the Soviet Union.

                    The most common titles associated with nobility in Europe were, in descending order Prince, Duke, Marquis, Count, Viscount, Baron, Knight and Noble, although some countries had more titles, some fewer. In Belgium, France, Portugal and Spain peers were the category of highest nobles; although most dukes were peers, some peers held lower titles.

                    Except for peers, titles indicated official rank, but not substantially different privileges. In fact, the majority of Europe's nobles never held hereditary titles. Even in countries where many did, it was often the longevity of a family's membership in the noble class and/or history of court/military service and/or wealth which was of greater importance in assessing its status than any legal title.

                    Evaluating titles across boundaries is virtually impossible, not only because they were bestowed more liberally in some countries than in others, but because their rules of descent and attached privileges also varied.

                    In France, Portugal, Scandinavia and Spain, the rank of prince was limited to members of the reigning dynasty, but the title was also sometimes borne by non-royal nobles in the Balkan countries, Bohemia, France, Germany, Italy, Lithuania, Poland, Russia. In Scandinavia, "duke" usually implies royal kinship and in Germany, semi- sovereign rank, but until the 16th century, dukes were mostly great land-owning nobles in France, Italy, Portugal and Spain who often were equal to or outranked princes, especially in Italy.

                    Counts, were originally companions of or regional governors appointed by the Holy Roman Emperor or by kings. In Germany many of these "grafen" retained semi-sovereign status (Reichsstand), acknowledging only nominally the authority of the Emperor and inflating their dignity with prefixes (e.g. margrave, landgrave, palsgrave, etc.) and their number by eschewing primogeniture. But most European counts were vassals of greater princes, even within the Empire (i.e. Austria, Bohemia, Hungary, northern Italy and Poland) where titles were mostly granted by the Emperor until the 19th century, transmissible to males and females through the male line.

                    It was not rare for sovereigns to grant hereditary titles to subjects of other realms, which honors conferred no legal rank in the recipient's country. That did not stop the Emperor from living in Vienna while making princes or counts of Bohemians, Dalmatians, Hungarians, Lithuanians and Poles. (Nearly all titles of baron in Poland were foreign.) The King of Spain recognized only his heir apparent as a prince in Madrid, but he created scores of them in Naples and Sicily and dozens more in Belgium.

                    In Scandinavia, there were few counts before the 17th century. In Russia, there weren't any counts until Peter the Great's reign from 1682 to 1725. Countships and baronies were distributed more sparingly in the North, sometimes descending to all children and sometime by masculine primogeniture.

                    In Latin countries, the titles of Marquis, Count, Viscount and Baron descended according to primogeniture, although in Italy some also descended to the entire male-line. In Spain, Marques was the most common title; in Portugal, Vizconde; and in Italy, Conte.

                    The Spanish grandee is equivalent to the French peer, ranking above all other Spanish nobles regardless of title. But Spain is unique inasmuch as men are far less favored over women than in most nobilities. Titles descend to daughters or sisters before being heritable by more distant male kinsmen. A holder of multiple titles is not bound by primogeniture, but may distribute them among children. The husband of a duquesa or vizcondesa is a duque or vizconde.

                    Below the rank of baron, in Germany there was the knight (Ritter), lord (Herr), nobleman (Edler) and untitled noble who usually took the predicate "von" or the higher one of "zu" which implied continued possession of the family seat. Note that lord (Herr) was used as a title, especially in Bohemia, but for many many years it was just a designation of an untitled noble. The Netherlands has the Jonkheer (strictly speaking a predicate rather than a title) below the Ridder, while Belgium has the chevalier.

                    Italy's lower titles are Cavaliere, Nobili, Patrician and Coscritto. Hungary, Bohemia and Poland all have Counts but nearly all titles of baron were foreign. Russia had princes and counts, and hundred of barons. Ranking below them were the dvorianstvo (untitled nobles).

                    Back to Table of Contents


                    2. What does it mean to be a German noble?

                    The answer to this question is taken from an article written by Gilbert von Studnitz in "Der Blumenbaum", a publication of the Sacramento German Genealogy Society, Vol. 9, number 4, April-June 1992. Gilbert, an a.t.r. member, has graciously given his permission for a revised version of this article to be used in the a.t.r. FAQ.

                    The German Nobility

                    Copyright © 1992 by Gilbert von Studnitz

                    The German system of nobility, as indeed the European system in general, is quite different from the English system with which most Americans are familiar. The English have a peerage system and not an extensive system of nobility, though their squires or landed gentry would tend to be the closest thing. In England only the eldest son usually inherits the title and the rest are considered commoners, though they may bear "courtesy titles" if their father has more than one, or may be called "Lord" or "Lady" without actually being one.

                    The German nobility is divided into two major divisions, that of the lower (niedriger Adel) and the high (hoher Adel). It is further divided into the ancient nobility (Uradel) and the newer nobility (commonly known as Briefadel, or literally nobility by letter-cachet, but also including other groups.) The Uradel may be of either the lower or high nobility, but the Briefadel is almost always of the lower.

                    In Germany, all legitimate children of a nobleman become nobles themselves, and most titles pass onto all the children with few exceptions. All the children of sovereigns did not, of course, become kings or electors, but did become princes or princesses. In the last decades of the German Empire, in imitation of the English system, a few families were ennobled with titles that passed on only to the eldest son, the remainder retaining either their father's former title (which he also still carried) or just untitled nobility.

                    The hereditary and legal privileges of the nobility as the first class of the realm ended in August of 1919 when the Constitution of the so-called Weimar Republic came into force. The laws that concerned the nobility for some one thousand years before 1919 stated that hereditary nobility could only be passed on through legitimate biological descent from a noble father but not through adoption and especially not through purchase. When non-nobles were adopted the family name could be carried by the adoptee, but none of the noble designations of the family (such as a title or the "von".) If such an adoptee wished to become noble, he or she had to apply to their sovereign for such status in the same manner as any other subject. An exemption to this was and is still made by the "legitimatio per matrimonium subsequens", which allowed the legitimation of children born out of wedlock after the marriage of their noble parents. By this the children became full hereditary nobles, though some social stigma still remained.

                    Since 1919, according to the German republican government, the nobility no longer exists as a legal entity. Nevertheless, the titles and noble designations of the nobility have not been abolished, as they have in Austria, and may still be carried. Legally they are now merely parts of the family name and in theory convey no status. Following this rule all children of, for example, a Count von Beust, whether male or female, would have the family name Count von Beust. Similarly your could find ladies named Elisabeth Duke of Saxony or Luise Prince of Prussia. A woman married to the Hereditary Grand Duke of Baden would, in law, also be named Hereditary Grand Duke of Baden, as would all their children. To avoid making all this seem too ridiculous the German government ignores much of its own law and allows the wives and children of nobles to take the gender-specific titles appropriate to their sex.

                    Another example of society ignoring the 1919 law and following traditional practice is that in all German telephone books a person named, for instance, Baron von Richthofen would be listed under a "R" for Richthofen rather than a "v" for "von" or a "B" for "Baron". The U.S. telephone books are (unwittingly) more compliant with current German legal writ by listing all persons with a "von" under "v".

                    The 1919 law also causes difficulties in the case of children inheriting senior titles of their fathers. For example, in certain families only the senior member is a count, and the rest are untitled nobles. For a child to use the inherited title of "count" upon his father's death would involve a court petition for a name change, which is not always granted when the judge or magistrate has an anti-noble bias.

                    Current law allows a person adopted by a noble to use the noble family name, and since the title is considered part of the name, that is also conveyed by adoption. It should be noted that the German nobility never acknowledges such persons to be noble, no matter what they call themselves.

                    Those persons who claim nobility through adoption or purchase, such as the notorious Claus von Bülow, the Nazi foreign minister von Ribbentrop, or Zsa-Zsa Gabor's husband who uses a Saxon princely title, are not recognized as part of the historical nobility and are no more members of that class than anyone else claiming a status to which they are not entitled. Most such persons are essentially deluding themselves while trying to fool others.

                    The basic designation of the nobility is the predicate "von", which the vast majority of German nobles carry. There are a small number of noble houses, almost exclusively of the Uradel, which have never used the "von" or any other noble predicate, but are nevertheless of fully equal standing with those that do.

                    In northern and eastern Germany there are a substantial number of families (such as the von Kranichfelds) that use the "von" as designations of the towns where they come from (as is the case with most older noble families) but have never been noble and make no pretense to be so.

                    A few noble houses use "von und zu", meaning they are not only from the place mentioned but still retain it. Another Uradel house is named "aus dem Winckel" instead of "von dem Winckel" but having the same meaning. Other noble predicates sometimes seen are "von dem", "von der", or "vom". "Van" is not used by German nobles but is Dutch or Flemish and does not usually connote nobility in those countries. As a way of differentiating themselves from non-nobles, the aristocracy of northern Germany in most cases uses the abbreviation "v.", instead of writing out the "von", while still pronouncing the whole word. The southern Germans most often write out the "von". It is always spelled with a small "v" unless it would be grammatically incorrect, such as in the beginning of a sentence.

                    Notwithstanding regional preferences, the "Bible" of the nobility, the Genealogisches Handbuch des Adels (Genealogical Handbook of the Nobility), published by C. A. Starke in Limburg/Lahn, uses the "v." to designate nobles and spells out the "von" for non-noble families or individual non-nobles within aristocratic families. This handbook, colloquially known as the "Gotha" for it's predecessor the Almanach de Gotha (in German, Gothaisches Hofkalendar) attempts a comprehensive listing of all German noble houses currently or recently in existence and comes out in several volumes on a yearly basis, listing all living members of a family and all those deceased since the last edition. The handbook is divided into several series with the binding in different colors: Royal & Princely houses, Counts, Barons, Untitled nobles, and Family histories. Within these series the families are, except since recently the Counts and Barons, divided into Uradel or Briefadel.

                    The advantage of having these books is obvious: there is a wealth of genealogical information, and as it lists addresses, many potential contacts can be found. It is also a way of being able to investigate people's claims to noble status, though this kind of checking is not considered "gentlemanly". The listing are thorough and are checked for accuracy, though they depend to a large degree on the individual's honesty in telling the truth about themselves.

                    Not every German noble family is included, as most often the family concerned must contribute financially to its inclusion, or the family may be too small, poor, or unwilling to warrant repeated updating. For instance, my own family, with some 70 members, appeared lastly in 1985 and will do so again in 1999, but that of my grandmother, von Bulmerincq, has not appeared since 1936. The current series of books has been published since 1951, and is available at a number of larger libraries. German nobles, especially the Uradel, have a particular class consciousness and consider themselves interrelated and cousins even if they don't know exactly how. Often in the case of the ancient families this is correct due to centuries of intermarriage. All members of the Uradel are considered by themselves to be of the same status, whether they are untitled, barons, counts, or whatever else they may be. The particular title of a person is far less important among the nobility than the age and standing of the family. This is particularly true as a number of old families have branches of various levels. For instance, the Counts, Barons, and untitled von Bothmers are all part of the same family. The Uradel also tend to look down on the Briefadel as parvenus, even when the Briefadel may have been noble for centuries. I recall visiting a cousin on the Lüneburger Heath in Lower Saxony who had a brass plate on his front door stating "Liferanten und Briefadel zur Hintertuer", meaning "Deliveries and Briefadel to the rear entrance". Though meant as a joke, there was still a bit of seriousness behind it.

                    Uradel

                    This oldest level of the nobility is made up of those houses which by no later than 1400 were members of the knightly class, or patricians of a free Imperial city such as Frankfurt/Main. Most often these houses are counted as noble since "time immemorial" as at their first appearance in written records they were already noble. The families that make up this segment of the nobility usually descend from the knights or most important warriors of a sovereign that were the basis of his fighting force, or more rarely from a senior civil official of the time. The Uradel often had legal privileges over the newer nobility certifying their higher standing, such as in the Nobles Law of the Kingdom of Saxony of 1902. There are far fewer Uradel families still in existence than Briefadel due to the fact that families die out over the centuries and no Uradel has been created in almost 600 years.

                    Briefadel

                    This level of the nobility is made up of those houses which were ennobled since the beginning of the 15th Century through the end of the German or Austrian Empires in 1918. There were widely differing prerequisites for this level of the nobility, though most often military or civil service to the sovereign were the qualities most valued. The Briefadel includes houses ennobled or recognized as noble by the Emperor or one of the sovereigns of the high nobility. Also included are patricians of the free Imperial cities and non-German noble houses that immigrated over the centuries, such as the Counts von Polier from France or the Herren von Zerboni di Sposetti from Italy.

                    High Nobility

                    The High Nobility is made up of those families that had Reichsstandschaft, or had a seat in the Parliament of the Holy Roman Empire. These seats were reserved for sovereign houses. These families were also Reichsunmittelbar, or in a feudal sense holding their lands directly from the Holy Roman Emperor, who for four centuries, until the end of the empire in 1806, came from the house of Habsburg. In essence, these families were rulers of their own countries, often in times of a weak emperor paying only lip service to their subservience to him. Their relationship to the emperor was then much like that of today's Commonwealth rulers to the British Queen. Even in times of a strong emperor he was to them more like a chairman of the board rather than a ruler. Up to the early 19th Century, there were some baronial and untitled families that held lands directly of the emperor, so essentially being their own rulers, but had no seat in the Parliament, thus being members of the lower nobility. Many families of the high nobility have house laws applicable to their members. Often these laws do not allow marriage outside their ranks, even to the lower nobility which would be considered a morganatic alliance. Even today, the children of a member of the high nobility who marries morganatically become members of the lower nobility.

                    Ranks of the High Nobility

                    Within this division of the nobility the highest title is Emperor, or Kaiser, deriving from Caesar in Latin. Through most of German history, there was only one of these, the Holy Roman Emperor of the German Nation, lasting from the crowning of Charlemagne in the year 800 through the renunciation of the last emperor, Franz II, in 1806 under the influence of Napoleon, who by then had proclaimed himself Emperor of the French. Kaiser Franz had already declared himself Emperor of Austria, as Franz I, in 1804. In essence, the emperor just changed his title so as to more accurately reflect the political realities of the time.

                    A second German empire was established in 1871 after the victory of the German states over Napoleon III, when King Wilhelm I of Prussia was proclaimed German Emperor. He was never titled Emperor of Germany, as this nation was not a unitary state but a federation of monarchies and free city-states with quasi-republican governments. The title of German Emperor was always carried in conjunction with that of King of Prussia, and he was addressed as Kaiserliche und Königliche Majestät (Imperial and Royal Majesty). The Austrian Emperor, based to a large degree upon his position as King of Hungary, was addressed as Apostolic Majesty.

                    Both German and Austrian empires ceased to exist after World War I, and the imperial titles have not been carried since the last emperors died (Wilhelm II of Germany in 1941, Karl of Austria in 1922). The last empress, Zita of Austria, died in 1989.

                    The children of the German emperor were Princes of Prussia (not Germany) and royal highnesses, except the eldest, who was German Kronprinz (Crown Prince) and addressed as Imperial and Royal Highness. The current heir to the throne is titled the, rather than a, Prince of Prussia, and is the only one in Germany still addressed as Imperial & Royal Highness. The children of the Austrian emperor were titled Archdukes or Archduchesses of Austria rather than princes, and called Imperial & Royal Highnesses.

                    Next we come to König and Königin, or King and Queen, which was carried by the rulers of the larger German states (Bavaria, Hanover, Prussia, Saxony, Württemberg, ). They were addressed as Majesty, and their children, princes or princesses, as Royal Highnesses.

                    After these came the Grossherzog, or Grand Duke, who were styled royal highness, and were rulers of somewhat smaller states, such as the two Mecklenburgs or Luxemburg (which until 1918 was considered a German state). The heir to these thrones was known as an Erbgrossherzog, or hereditary grand duke, and the other children were princes or princesses. Additionally in the Saxon kingdom, grand duchy, and duchies, all the children of the ruler were also styled dukes or duchesses.

                    The next level is that of Herzog, or Duke, who was normally styled Highness.

                    Kurfürst, or Elector in English, ranked with a Duke. The electors were originally the greatest lords of the Holy Roman Empire, both temporal and spiritual, who elected the Emperor before the throne became hereditary. They later became sovereigns no different from the rest. The last ruling Elector, Hesse-Cassel, lost his throne to Prussia in 1866.

                    Landgraf (Landgrave), Markgraf (Margrave), and Pfalzgraf (Palsgrave or Count Palatine) ranked somewhat with a Duke and are usually considered higher than a Fürst. All sovereigns of this rank were eventually "promoted" to higher titles, but the titles were sometimes used instead of crown prince for their states, and are currently used for the Heads of the Houses of Baden, Hesse and Saxony. Depending on circumstances, they could be styled Royal Highness or simply Highness. In the Middle Ages, some sovereigns were Burggrafs, or Burgraves, but all these took higher titles early on and Burggraf became a title and sometimes function, like Wildgraf, of the lower nobility.

                    Next follows Fürst (for which there is no good translation in English, but which is confusingly called Prince). These are styled Durchlaucht, translated as Serene Highness. Children of dukes, kurfürsts, and fürsts were all princes or princesses. In the third generation their descendants sometimes become counts, except for the ruling line, which retains the princely title.

                    The last category of the high nobility still in existence is that of Graf, or Count. The last sovereigns of this rank ceased ruling after the Congress of Vienna in 1815. They are styled Erlaucht, or Illustrious Highness. Their children are all counts or countesses. A former somewhat higher rank of gefürsteter graf, or princely count, no longer exists.

                    Among all the higher nobility the idea of Ebenbürgtigkeit exists, meaning all of them, no matter what the title, are considered of equal birth and standing.

                    Ranks of the Lower Nobility

                    Very often a certain level of income, wealth, or social standing was necessary for appointment to these ranks, so as to demonstrate the ability of the person ennobled to maintain himself at a proper level.

                    The highest rank of the non-sovereign nobility is Duke, a title almost never given them and then only "ad personam", or much like an English life peer. An example is Otto von Bismarck as Duke of Lauenburg. He was styled Serene Highness.

                    The highest rank that normally was part of the lower nobility is Fürst. This title, like Duke, was given to them only in the last centuries of the monarchy. Their children were rarely princes, but more usually counts or barons, depending on what was the original title of the Fürst.

                    Next in rank is Count, which in modern times could be given primogeniture (inherited only by the eldest son), but was usually given to all the children of the new count. A very few houses also carry the title Burggraf which is approximately equivalent to Count.

                    Baron follows, which is almost always called Freiherr in Germany, but given as Baron to the Germans of the Baltic regions. For many years it was in dispute whether Baron was equivalent to Freiherr (which was deemed "better"), but this was settled in the last century in an affirmative manner. The wife of a Freiherr is a Freifrau, the daughter a Freiherrin. This last title is sometimes abbreviated Freiin. The wife of a Baron is a Baronin, the daughter a Baronesse. Another variant of this rank is called Edler Herr, or Edle Herrin for females, which is borne by only a few very old families (such as the Gans zu Putlitz).

                    The last level is that of the untitled nobility, which nevertheless includes some titled families. Normally an untitled noble is addressed as Herr, in this context meaning Lord.

                    In former times untitled nobles, especially those from the eastern regions, were addressed as Junker, a title still in usage in the Netherlands as Jonkheer. It is no longer normally used in Germany. In Bavaria and especially Austria, the hereditary title of Ritter (Knight) was given to families, but they were still considered part of the untitled nobility. Much the same applies to the title of Edler, which is mainly northern and central German. While the wife and daughters of an Edler were titled Edle, the wife of a Ritter was called a Frau (in this sense Lady) and not Ritterin.

                    Though the formal power of the German nobility is gone, it still remains a considerable social force. After the debacle of World War II, the aristocracy gradually reformed in groups based on religious affiliation or province of origin. For well over 30 years, these groups have been affiliated as the "Vereinigung der Deutschen Adelsverbaende" and published the monthly "Deutsches Adelsblatt" in the small town of Westerbrak (now part of Kirchbrak). The legalistic "Deutsches Adelsrechtsausschuss" was set up, composed of members from various noble and chivalric organizations, to determine in questionable cases who belongs to the nobility or if a person has a right to a noble title he claims. Only if there is a positive judgment by this organization can someone join one of the nobles' associations or have their family listed in the Gotha.

                    It has been estimated that there are some 40,000 nobles of all ranks in Germany today.

                    Back to Table of Contents


                    Part IV: Resources

                    1. On-line Sources of Information

                    It is amazing what one can find on-line about royalty, nobility and related topics. The following sites are but a sampling of what one can discover while surfing the 'Net. This list is not meant to be definitive; rather it is a starting point for research. Most of the following sites are in English, although some are in other languages. The FAQ compiler and maintainer does not make any judgements as to the contents or opinions found at these sites. If you are using the World Wide Web (aka WWW, W3, Mosaic, Netscape, Lynx), you can reach these pages at the following URLs:

                    Existing Monarchies

                    General:
                    http://www.hoelseth.com/royalty/royalty.html
                    Dag Hoelseth's Royal Corner, with many links as well as a collection of constitutional and legal documents pertaining to various monarchies.
                    Andorra:
                    http://www.sigma.net/fafhrd/andorra/index.htm
                    Bahrain:
                    http://www.bahrain.gov.bh/English/Royal/Royal.asp
                    Belgium:
                    http://www.monarchie.be/
                    Denmark:
                    http://www.kongehuset.dk/ (official site)
                    http://www.um.dk/english/danmark/om_danmark/queen.html
                    Japan:
                    http://www.geocities.com/Tokyo/Temple/3953
                    Jordan:
                    http://www.kinghussein.gov.jo/ http://www.jordanview.net/ (official site)
                    Liechtenstein:
                    http://www.news.li/fam/index.htm
                    Luxembourg:
                    http://www.gouvernement.lu/gouv/fr/doss/savoirlu/famgdduc.html (official site of the grand-duchy; in French)
                    http://www.luxcentral.com/LuxDukes.html
                    Monaco:
                    http://www.monaco.mc/monaco/700ans/index.html
                    http://www.monaco.gouv.mc/ (in French)
                    Netherlands:
                    http://www.koninklijkhuis.nl/ (official site)
                    http://www.xs4all.nl/~kvenjb/gennl.htm
                    Norway:
                    http://www.kongehuset.no/
                    Oman:
                    http://www.msdg.com/oman/index.htm
                    Perak:
                    http://www.perak.gov.my/perak_250696/june/html/sultan1.html
                    Saudi Arabia:
                    http://www.saudi.net/gov_profile/profile_king.html
                    Spain:
                    http://www.casareal.es/ (official site)
                    http://www.DocuWeb.ca/SiSpain/english/politics/royal/index.html
                    Swaziland:
                    http://www.pitt.edu/~tgsst10/swaziland.html
                    Sweden:
                    http://www.royalcourt.se/ (official site)
                    Thailand:
                    http://sunsite.au.ac.th/thailand/rama9/ http://kanchanapisek.or.th/biography/index.en.html
                    Tonga:
                    http://palaceoffice.gov.to/
                    United Arab Emirates:
                    http://www.uae.org.ae/History/zayed.html

                    Other Royal Houses

                    Afghanistan:
                    http://www.zaher-shah.fr.fm
                    Albania:
                    http://www.kwtelecom.com/heraldry/albania.html
                    Austria:
                    http://otto.twschwarzer.de
                    Bavaria:
                    http://www.munichfound.de/issues/1996/11/articles/HEIR.html
                    Brazil:
                    http://www.arsa.com/monarquia/
                    Bulgaria:
                    http://www.seker.es/simeon/reybul.html
                    France (Royal, duc d'Anjou):
                    http://www.royaute.org/
                    France (Royal, comte de Paris):
                    http://www.royaute-france.com/
                    France (Imperial):
                    http://www.napoleon.org
                    Hannover:
                    http://www.welfen.de/
                    Iran:
                    http://www.irancmi.org
                    Mexico:
                    http://www.casaimperial.org/
                    Portugal:
                    http://www.geocities.com/CapitolHill/9734/
                    http://www.portugal-pt.com/JuventudeLusitana/english.htm
                    Prussia:
                    http://www.preussen.de/
                    Yugoslavia:
                    http://www.royalfamily.org/

                    Other Sites

                    Aga Khan & Family:
                    The Aga Khan Development Network
                    http://www.akdn.org/
                    Albanian Royal Court:
                    http://www.french-market.com/albania/
                    Alexander Palace Time Machine:
                    http://alexanderpalace.org/palace/
                    Almanach de Bruxelles:
                    http://www.almanach.be/central.html
                    Almanach de la Cour:
                    http://www.chivalricorders.org/index3.htm
                    Brigitte's Royal & Nobility Genealogy:
                    http://worldroots.com/brigitte/royal/royal00.htm
                    Caltrap's Corner:
                    http://www.caltraps-corner.com
                    Charlotte's Web: Roots - Noble & Royal Genealogies:
                    http://www.charweb.org/gen/noblesse.html
                    Christine's Royal Families Page:
                    http://wwwedu.cs.utwente.nl/~kersten/royal.html
                    The Crown of Russian Empire:
                    http://www.cs.msu.su/heraldry/
                    Cyndi's List of Genealogy Sites on the Internet - Royalty and Nobility:
                    http://www.oz.net/~cyndihow/royalty.htm
                    The Database of the Saudi Arabian Royal Family:
                    http://www.ardaman.com/
                    De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors:
                    http://www.salve.edu/~dimaiom/deimprom.html
                    The European History Web Page:
                    http://www.eurohistory.com
                    European Royal Houses:
                    http://www.chivalricorders.org/royalty/index.htm
                    The EuroStamm Home Page:
                    http://members.aol.com/eurostamm/index.html
                    Federazione Monarchica Italiana:
                    http://www.vol.it/fede_monarc/
                    Fundación Príncipe de Asturias:
                    http://www.fpa.es/
                    Genealogical Gleanings (Royalty from Cambodia, Fiji, Tonga, Hawaii, Africa and India):
                    http://www.uq.net.au/~zzhsoszy
                    German Nobility Database:
                    http://www8.informatik.uni-erlangen.de/html/ww-person.html
                    A Glossary of European Noble, Princely, Royal, and Imperial Titles (aka Mark Odegard's Titles FAQ):
                    http://www.heraldica.org/topics/odegard/titlefaq.htm
                    A Glossary of Titles in 35 languages by Alexander Kirschnig
                    http://www.heraldica.org/faqs/titel.htm
                    Habsburg Pages:
                    http://otto.twschwarzer.de
                    Habsburg Biographies:
                    http://www.booksatoz.com/antiquesatoz/habsburg/habsburg.htm
                    Heraldica: François Velde's Heraldry Site:
                    http://www.heraldica.org/
                    International Constitutional Law:
                    http://www.oefre.unibe.ch/law/icl/index.html
                    Internet Gotha:
                    http://www8.informatik.uni-erlangen.de/cgi-bin/stoyan/wwp/LANG=engl/?gotha
                    Japan, Inc.: The Emperor System and Japan's Royal Family:
                    http://www.vikingphoenix.com/public/JapanIncorporated/postwar/japemps.htm
                    Juventude Lusitana (a Portuguese monarchist site):
                    http://www.portugal-pt.com/JuventudeLusitana/english.htm
                    Marivi's Royalty Page:
                    http://www.serv.net/~marivim/royalty.html
                    The Medici of Florence:
                    http://www.arca.net/tourism/florence/medici.htm
                    Monarchy Home Page:
                    http://www.geocities.com/CapitolHill/3417/monarchy.html
                    Monarchie weltweit:
                    http://home.wtal.de/monarchie/links.htm
                    Napoleon Bonaparte:
                    http://www.mindspring.com/~csr/napoleon/napoleon.htm
                    Paul Theroff's Dynastic Genealogy Files:
                    http://pages.prodigy.net/ptheroff
                    Paul Theroff's Online Gotha:
                    http://pages.prodigy.net/ptheroff/gotha/gotha.htm
                    Queen Marie of Romania, Papers:
                    http://www.library.kent.edu/speccoll/women/queen.html
                    Roberto Ortiz de Zarate's Political Datasets (a web site containing a current list of heads of state & heads of government):
                    http://web.jet.es/ziaorarr
                    The Royal Ark: Royal and Ruling Houses of Africa, Asia, Oceania and the Americas
                    http://www.dreamwater.net/regiment/RoyalArk/royalark.htm
                    Royal Descents of famous people:
                    http://www.cl.cam.ac.uk/users/mh10006/FamTree/famous.royal.html
                    Royal Families of the World:
                    http://www.royalfamily.com/
                    Royal Houses - Where They Have Been Reigning and When:
                    http://www.users.wineasy.se/elias/houses.htm
                    Royal & Noble Lineages:
                    http://www.uq.edu.au/~zzhsoszy/index.html
                    Royal Network:
                    http://www.royalnetwork.com/
                    Royal Russia:
                    http://angelfire.com/pa/ImperialRussian/index.html
                    Royalist's Home Page:
                    http://www.themonarchist.com
                    The Royalty in History Site:
                    http://www.xs4all.nl/~kvenjb/kings.htm
                    Rulers (heads of state & heads of government):
                    http://www.rulers.org
                    Rulers of Bulgaria:
                    http://www.bulgaria.com/history/rulers/
                    Spanish Nobiliary Regulations:
                    http://www.ChivalricOrders.org/nobility/spanoble.htm
                    The U.S. House of Representatives Internet Law Library:
                    (constitutions of most of the countries in the world)
                    http://law.house.gov/1.htm

                    Back to Table of Contents


                    2. Useful Addresses.

                    I - Associations:

                    The Monarchist League
                    BM Monarchist
                    London WC1N 3XX
                    United Kingdom
                    URL: http://www.geocities.com/Athens/7993 (you will find addresses of other leagues and associations at this website)

                    The Monarchist League in Australia
                    P.O. Box 1068
                    Double Bay, NSW 2028
                    Australia
                    e-mail: Phillip_Benwell@monarchist.org.au
                    URL: http://www.monarchist.org.au

                    The Constantian Society
                    (a monarchist organization with educational goals and activities)
                    URL: http://www.put.com/~monarchy/

                    II - Mail Order:

                    Hatchards
                    Attention: Robin Piguet
                    187 Piccadilly
                    London, W1V 9DA
                    United Kingdom

                    e-mail: 187picc@hatchards.co.uk

                    Heraldry Today
                    Parliament Piece
                    Ramsbury, Wiltshire SN8 2QH
                    United Kingdom

                    e-mail: heraldry@heraldrytoday.co.uk
                    URL: http://www.heraldrytoday.co.uk
                    (specialists for books on genealogy, heraldry and royalty)

                    International Historic Films, Inc.
                    Dept. S
                    P.O. Box 29035
                    Chicago, IL 60629
                    U.S.A.

                    (videos of such categories as 'British Heritage' and 'European Royals' for sale)
                    URL: http://www.viamall.com/ihf/index.html

                    Librairie des Editions Christian
                    14, rue Littré
                    75006 Paris, France

                    URL: http://www.karolus.org/christian/index.htm

                    Rainy Day Books
                    P.O. Box 775
                    Route 119
                    Fitzwilliam, NH 03447
                    U.S.A.

                    Rosemary Bennett Rare Books
                    1077 SW13th Avenue
                    Albany, OR 97321
                    U.S.A.

                    (specializing in books about royalty; write for free brochure)

                    Rosvall Royal Books
                    Enasen-Falekvarna
                    S-52191 Falköping
                    Sweden

                    e-mail: ted.rosvall@falköping.mail.telia.com
                    (new and antiquarian royal books in various languages)

                    III - Periodicals:

                    C.E.D.R.E. (Cercle d'Etudes des dynasties royales européennes)
                    12, allée des Jonquilles
                    F-60260 Lamorlaye, France

                    (quarterly bulletins, in French, about various royal and noble families)

                    Deutsches Adelsblatt GmbH
                    Westerbrak 10
                    37619 Kirchbrak
                    Germany

                    (monthly publication, in German, of the Vereinigung der Deutschen Adelsverbaende)
                    The European Royalty History Journal
                    (six issues per year)
                    Eurohistory.com
                    110 Linden Street
                    Oakland CA 94607
                    U.S.A.

                    Phone: (510) 839-4676
                    Fax: (510) 839-4645

                    e-mail: books@eurohistory.com

                    URL: http://www.eurohistory.com/journal.html
                    Journal of Royal & Noble Genealogy: An International Journal of the Augustan Society, Inc.
                    The Augustan Society, Inc.
                    P.O. Box P
                    Torrance, CA 90508-0210
                    U.S.A.

                    Majesty Magazine
                    P.O. Box 301069
                    Escondido, CA 92030
                    U.S.A.

                    (for American and Canadian subscriptions)

                    Majesty Subscriptions
                    Tower House, Sovereign Park, Lathkill Street
                    Market Halborough
                    Leicester LE16 9EF
                    United Kingdom
                    (for UK and overseas subscriptions)

                    (a monthly magazine focussing on royal families)

                    Point de Vue
                    Service Abonnement
                    70, rue Compans
                    F-75019 Paris, France

                    (a weekly magazine focussing on British and European royalty and nobility, in French)

                    Royal Book News
                    Marlene Koenig
                    5590 Jowett Court
                    Alexandria, VA 22315
                    U.S.A.

                    (bi-monthly newsletter for and about royal books)
                    e-mail: makoenig@delphi.com

                    Royalty
                    P.O. Box 3278
                    803 Finchley Road
                    London NW11 8DP
                    United Kingdom

                    (a monthly magazine, similar to Majesty magazine)

                    Royalty Digest
                    Church Street
                    Ticehurst, East Sussex TN57 AA
                    United Kingdom

                    (a monthly magazine available on subscription)

                    IV - Publishers:

                    abiszet Bücher-service GmbH
                    Geschäftsführer: Dipl.-Volkswirt
                    Ulrich Kraus
                    Oberländerstr. 21
                    D-93051 Regensburg
                    Germany

                    e-mail: uk@a-zet.de

                    URL: http://www.a-zet.de
                    C.A.Starke Verlag
                    Frankfurterstrasse 51/53
                    D-65549 Limburg/Lahn
                    Germany

                    e-mail: starkeverlag@t-online.de
                    URL: http://www.edition-digital.com/starkeverlag/index.html
                    Verlag Degener & Co.
                    Postfach 1360
                    D-91403 Neustadt/Aisch
                    Germany

                    e-mail: degener@waldenfont.com

                    URL: http://www.waldenfont.com/degener/

                    Back to Table of Contents


                    3. Electronic (on-line) Magazines

                    This section features a selection of electronic, or on-line, magazines that occasionally feature articles about members of royal or noble families. For non-electronic magazines, please see "Periodicals" in Part IV: 2. Useful Addresses.

                    ABC Electronico (Spanish-language)
                    http://www.abc.es
                    Aftonbladet (Swedish-language)
                    http://www.aftonbladet.se
                    Hola/Hello (Spanish- and English-language)
                    http://www.hola.es
                    Monaco Actualité (French-language)
                    http://www.monaco.mc/actualite/index.html
                    Paris Match (French-language)
                    http://www.parismatch.com
                    tuSpain (English-language)
                    http://tuspain.com/index.html

                    Back to Table of Contents


                    4. Bibliography

                    The bibliography is divided into three sections:
                    1. Biographies, Histories & Related Works
                    2. Genealogies & Related Works
                    3. General

                    Each of the sections are divided into nine language categories in the following order: Danish, Dutch, English, French, German, Italian, Norwegian, Spanish and Swedish.

                    I - Biographies, Histories and Related Works

                    Danish-Language Books:
                    Bramsen, Bo. Huset Glücksborg, 2 Vols., 1992

                    Buchwaldt, Randi. Prinsesse Benedikte: Prinsessen i midten. Copenhagen: Forenede Udgivere, 1994

                    Wolden-Raethinge, Anne. Dronning I Danmark: Margrethe den Anden fortaeller om sit liv. Photos by Georg Oddner. Gyldendal, 1989

                    Dutch-Language Books:
                    Ditzhuyzen, Reina van. Oranje-Nassau: een biografisch woordenboek. Haarlem: Becht, 1992 [biographical & genealogical dictionary of the Royal House of Nassau]

                    Ruizendaal, Willem. Nassau & Oranje: 600 jaar geschiedenis van ons vorstenhuis van Engelbert I tot Willem-Alexander. Baarn: Tirion, 1995

                    Schenk, M.G. Een Eeuw Vorstinnen: Honderd Jaar Vrouwen op de Nederlandse Troon. Amsterdam: De Boekerig, 1989

                    English-Language Books:
                    The European Royal Families. St. Gallen, Switzerland: Editions Norden, 1993

                    Great Dynasties: Capets, Hohenstaufens, Plantagenets, Hapsburgs, Valois, Stuarts, Tudors, Bourbons of France, Romanovs, Braganzas, Bourbons of Spain, Hohenzollerns, House of Savoy, House of Hanover-Windsor, Bourbons of Naples, Bonapartes. New York: Mayflower Books, 1979

                    Alderson, A.D. The Structure of the Ottoman Dynasty. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1956 [Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1982]

                    Aronson, Theo. Defiant Dynasty: the Coburgs of Belgium. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1968 [alternate title: The Coburgs of Belgium. London: Cassell, 1969]

                    -----. A Family of Kings: the descendants of Christian IX of Denmark. London: Cassell, 1976

                    -----. Grandmama of Europe: the crowned descendants of Queen Victoria. London: Cassell, 1973

                    -----. The Kaisers. London: Cassell, 1971 [Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1971]

                    -----. Royal Vendetta: the crown of Spain, 1829-1965. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1966 [London: Oldbourne, 1967]

                    Behr, Edward. Hirohito: behind the myth. London: Hamish Hamilton Ltd.; New York: Villard Books, 1989 [New York: Vintage Books, 1990]

                    Bennett, Daphne. Vicky: Princess Royal of England and German Empress. London: Collins, Harvill, 1971 [New York: St. Martin's Press, 1971]

                    Bergamini, John D. The Spanish Bourbons: the history of a tenacious dynasty. New York: Putnam, 1974

                    -----. The Tragic Dynasty: a history of the Romanovs. New York: Putnam, 1969 [New York: Putnam, 1972]

                    Bjaaland, Patricia C. The Norwegian Royal Family. Oslo: TANO, 1986

                    Blankenship, Gayle King. Royal and Noble Familes of Medieval Europe. Poquoson, VA: G.K. Blankenship, 1993

                    Bokhanov, Alexander, ... et. al. The Romanovs: love, power & tragedy. (translated by Lyudmila Xenofontova). London: Leppi, 1993

                    Boulay, Laure & Françoise Jaudel. There are Still Kings: The ten royal families of Europe. New York: Clarkson N. Potter Inc., 1984

                    Brewster, Hugh. Anastasia's Album. New York: Hyperion Books for Children,1996

                    Chapman-Huston, Desmond. Ludwig II. New York: Dorset Press, 1990

                    Chavchavadze, David, Prince. The Grand Dukes. New York: Atlantic International Publications, 1990

                    Chichibu, HIH Princess (Setsuko). The Silver Drum: an imperial memoir. (translated by Dorothy Britton). Kent, Conn.: Global Books, 1996

                    Constant, Stephen. Foxy Ferdinand, 1861-1948, Tsar of Bulgaria. London: Sidgwick and Jackson, 1979 [New York: Franklin Watts, 1980]

                    Crewe, Quentin. The Last Maharaja: a biography of Sawai Man Singh II, Maharaja of Jaipur. London: M. Joseph, 1985

                    Curley, Walter J.P., Jr. Monarchs-in-Waiting. New York: Dodd, Mead and Company, 1973 [alternate title: Monarchs in Waiting. London: Hutchinson, 1975]

                    Davis, Reginald. Royal Families of the World. London: Collins, 1978

                    -----. The Royal Family of Thailand. London: Nicholas Publications, 1981

                    Diesbach, Ghislain de. Secrets of the Gotha. New York: Meredith Press, 1968

                    Dimitroff, Pashanko. Boris III of Bulgaria: Toiler Citizen King. 1986 [Bulgarian title: Boris III, ëtìsar na Bulgariëiìa, 1894-1943, published 1990]

                    Duff, David. Hessian Tapestry. London: Muller, 1967 [Newton Abbot [Eng.]; North Pomfret, Vt.: David & Charles, 1979]

                    Edwards, Anne. The Grimaldis of Monaco. New York: Morrow, 1992

                    -----. Throne of Gold: the lives of the Aga Khans. New York: Morrow, 1995

                    Erickson, Carolly. Great Catherine. New York: Crown Publishers, 1994 [New York: St. Martin's Griffin, 1995]

                    Fenyvesi, Charles. Splendor in Exile: The ex-majesties of Europe. Washington, D.C.: New Republic Books, 1979

                    Finestone, Jeffrey. The Royal Family of Thailand: the descendants of King Chulalongkorn. Bangkok: Phitsanulok Pub. Co., 1989

                    Fujitani, Takashi. Splendid Monarchy: power and pagentry in modern Japan. Berkley: University of California Press, 1996

                    Grabbe, Alexander, Count. The Private World of the Last Tsar: in the photographs and notes of General Count Alexander Grabbe. (edited by Paul and Beatrice Grabbe). Boston: Little, Brown, 1984

                    Greve, Tim. Haakon VII of Norway: founder of a new monarchy. (translated from the Norwegian and edited by Thomas Kingston Derry), London: Hurst, 1983 Hall, Trevor. The Golden Age of Royalty: photography from 1858-1930. New Malden, Surrey, England: Colour Library, 1981 [Secaucus, New Jersey: Chartwell Books, Inc., 1981]

                    Hohenzollern, Paul of. King Carol II: a life of my grandfather. London. Methuen, 1988

                    Judd, Denis. Eclipse of Kings: European monarchies in the Twentieth Century. London: Book Club Associates, 1976 [New York: Stein and Day, 1976]

                    King, Greg. The Last Empress: the Life and Times of Alexandra Feodorovna, Tsarina of Russia. New York: Carol Pub. Group, 1994

                    Kurth, Peter. Anastasia: the riddle of Anna Anderson. Boston: Little, Brown & Co., 1983

                    -----. Tsar: the lost world of Nicholas and Alexandra. Boston, Toronto: Little, Brown & Co., 1995

                    Lacey, Robert. Aristocrats. London: Hutchinson, 1983 [Toronto: McClelland & Stewart Limited, 1983]

                    -----. Grace. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1984 [Thorndike, Me.: G.K. Hall; Bath, Avon, England: Chivers Press, 1995]

                    -----. The Kingdom. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich 1982 [history of Saudi Arabia]

                    Large, Stephen S. Emperor Hirohito and Showa Japan: a political biography. London; New York: Routledge, 1992

                    Lebra, Takie Sugiyama. Above the Clouds: status culture of the modern Japanese nobility. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993

                    Marie, Princess of Greece. A Romanov Diary: the autobiography of H.I. & R.H. Grand Duchess George. New York: Atlantic International Publications, 1988

                    Massie, Robert K. Nicholas and Alexandra. New York: Atheneum, 1967 [London: Gollancz, 1967]

                    -----. Peter the Great: his life and world. New York: Knopf, 1980 [New York: Wings Books, 1991]

                    -----. The Romanov Family Album. London: Allen Lane, 1982 [New York: The Vendome Press, 1982]

                    -----. The Romanovs: the final chapter. New York: Random House, 1995

                    Massie, Robert K. & Jeffrey Finestone. The Last Courts of Europe: a royal family album, 1860-1914. London: J.M. Dent and Sons Ltd., 1981 [New York: The Vendome Press, 1981]

                    Maylunas, Andrei & Sergei Mironenko. A Lifelong Passion: Nicholas and Alexandra: their own story. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1996 [New York: Doubleday, 1997]

                    Michael, Prince of Greece & Alan Palmer. The Royal House of Greece. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1990

                    Michael, Prince of Greece & Andrei Maylunas. Nicholas and Alexandra: the family albums. London: Tauris Parke Books, 1992

                    Mikos de Tarrodhaza, Charles, Teodoro Amerlinck y Zirion & David Williamson. The Imperial House of Mexico: the house of Iturbe. Petergate, York.: Quacks the Booklet Printer, 1994

                    Noel, Gerard. Ena: Spain's English Queen. London: Constable, 1984

                    Normington, Susan. Napoleon's Children. Dover, N.H.: A. Sutton, 1993

                    Pakula, Hannah. The Last Romantic: a biography of Queen Marie of Romania. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1985

                    -----. An Uncommon Woman: The Empress Frederick, Daughter of Queen Victoria, Wife of the Crown Prince of Prussia, Mother of Kaiser Wilhelm. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1995

                    Palmer, Alan. The Kaiser: warlord of the Second Reich. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1978

                    -----. Twilight of the Habsburgs: the life and times of Emperor Francis Joseph. New York: Grove Press, 1995

                    Papanicolaou, Lilika S. Frederica, Queen of the Hellenes: Mission of a Modern Queen. San Gwann, Malta: Publishers Enterprises Group (PEG) Ltd., 1994

                    Ponsonby Fane, Richard Arthur Brabazon. The Imperial House of Japan. Kyoto: Ponsonby Fane Memorial Society, 1959.

                    Powell, Charles T. Juan Carlos of Spain: self-made monarch. New York: St.Martin's Press, 1996

                    Powell, William. Saudi Arabia and its Royal Family. Secaucus, N.J.: L. Stuart, 1982

                    Pratt, Michael, Lord. The Great Country Houses of Central Europe: Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland. New York: Abbeville Press, 1991

                    Pu-Yi, Emperor of China. From Emperor to Citizen. Oxford University Press, 1990

                    Radzinsky, Edvard. The Last Tsar. New York: Doubleday, 1992

                    Raleigh, Donald J., ed., & compiled by A.A. Iskenderov. The Emperors and Empresses of Russia: rediscovering the Romanovs. Armonk, N.Y.: M.E. Sharpe, 1996

                    Robyns, Gwen. Geraldine of the Albanians: the authorised biography. London: Muller, Blond & White, 1987

                    Rowen, Herbert H. The Princes of Orange: the stadholders in the Dutch Republic. Cambridge [Cambridgeshire]; New York: Cambridge University Press, 1988

                    Rubincam, Milton. America's Only Royal Family: genealogy of the former Hawaiian ruling house. Washington, D.C.: National Genealogical Society, 1968

                    Tantzos, G. Nicholas. The Inheritors of Alexander the Great: an illustrated history. New York: Atlantic International Publishers, 1986

                    -----. King by Chance: a biographical novel of King George I of Greece,. Sutton, 1996

                    Viktoria Luise, Princess of Prussia. The Kaiser's Daughter. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1965

                    Villalonga, José Luis. The King. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1995 [biography of King Juan Carlos of Spain]

                    Vorres, Ian. The Last Grand Duchess: Her Imperial Highness Grand Duchess Olga Alexandrovna. London: Hutchinson, 1964 [New York: Scribner, 1965]

                    Watson, Sophia. Marina: The story of a princess. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1994

                    Williamson, David. Debrett's Kings and Queens of Europe. Topsfield, Mass.: Salem House Publishers, 1986

                    Wolden-Raethinge, Anne. Queen in Denmark: Margrethe II talks about her life. Photos by Georg Oddner. Gyldendal, 1989

                    French-Language Books:
                    Béarn, Stéphane. Les couronnes de l'exil. Paris: Balland, 1990

                    Behr, Edward. Hiro Hito: l'empereur ambigu. Paris: Robert Laffond, 1989

                    Boulay, Laure & Françoise Jaudel. Il est encore des rois. Paris: Presses de la Cité, 1981

                    Brégeon, Jean-Joël. Les Grimaldi de Monaco. Paris: Criterion, 1991

                    Cannuyer, Christian. Belgique est leur nom: 160 ans d'histoire de notre dynastie nationale, 1831-1991. Izegem, Belgique: Editions Illustra, 1991

                    -----. Les maisons royales et souveraines d'Europe. Paris: Editions Brépols, 1989

                    Colin, Gerty. Rois et reines de Belgique: l'histoire émouvante des châtelains de Laeken. Paris: Presses de la Cité, 1993

                    Corti, Egon César, comte. Elisabeth d'Autriche: "Sissi". Paris: Payot, 1987 [rep. ed.]

                    Dayez-Burgeon, Pascal. La reine Astrid: histoire d'un mythe. Paris: Criterion, 1995

                    Decaux, Alain. Monaco et ses princes: sept siècles d'histoire. 1997

                    Des Cars, Jean. Les châteaux fous de Louis II de Bavière. Paris: Perrin, 1986

                    -----. Il était une fois Monaco: une famille, 700 ans d'histoire. Paris: Editions du Rocher, 1996

                    Dugast Rouillé, Michel. Charles de Habsbourg, le dernier empereur (1887-1922). Paris: J. Duculot, 1991

                    Edwards, Anne. Les Grimaldi: histoire d'une dynastie. Paris: Editions Belfond, 1993

                    Eugénie, princesse de Grèce. Le Tsarévitch: enfant martyr. Paris: Perrin, 1990

                    Ferrand, Jacques. Romanoff, album de famille. Paris: Librairie Galignani, 1989 & 1990.

                    Foran de Saint-Bar, Thomas. Portrait d'un Roi: Pierre II de Yougoslavie. Serg, 1973

                    Gauthier, Guy. Les aigles et les lions: histoire des monarchies balkaniques de 1817 à 1974. Paris: Editions France-Empire, 1996

                    -----. Missy: reine de Roumanie.  Paris: Editions France-Empire, 1994

                    Henri, Comte de Paris. Mémoires d'exil et de combats. Paris: Atelier Marcel Jullian, 1979

                    Henri d'Orléans, prince de France, comte de Clermont. A mes fils. Paris: Albin Michel, 1990

                    Isabelle, Comtesse de Paris. Mon bonheur de grand-mère. Paris: Robert Laffont, 1995

                    -----. Tout m'est bonheur.  Paris: Robert Laffont, 1978-1981

                    Kermina, Françoise. Bernadotte et Désirée Clary: le Béarnais et la Marsaillaise, souverains de Suède. Paris: Perrin, 1991

                    Lafontaine, Paul. Notre Dynastie. 1991  [history & genealogy of the Luxembourg dynasty]

                    Le Hête, Thierry. Les Capétiens, le livre du millénaire. Paris: Editions Christian, 1987

                    Mension-Rigau, Eric. Aristocrates et grands bourgeois: éducation, traditions, valeurs. Paris: Plon, 1994

                    Metzger, Laurent. Les sultanats de Malaisie: un régime monarchique au vingtième siècle. Paris: Harmattan, 1994

                    Paul, prince de Hohenzollern-Roumanie. Carol II roi de Roumanie. Paris: Denoël, 1990

                    Séguy, Philippe & Antoine Michelland. Fabiola: la reine blanche.  Paris: Bayard, 1995

                    Stephany, Pierre & Henri van Daele. Cinq Rois. 1989 [history of Belgium's royal family]

                    Taubert-Natta, Bernard, baron & Georges Martin. Le sang des Bade. La Ricamarie: G. Martin, 1982

                    Troyat, Henri. Alexandre II, le tsar libérateur. Paris: Flammarion, 1990

                    Valynseele, Joseph. Les maréchaux de Napoléon III: leur famille et leur descendance. Paris: Valynseele, 1980

                    Viguié-Desplaces, Philippe. Sa majesté le roi Michel de Roumanie, le règne inachevé. Paris: Michel Lafon, 1982.

                    German-Language Books:
                    Brook-Shepherd, Gordon. Zita, die letzte Kaiserin. (translated by Gunther Martin). Wien: Zsolnay, 1993

                    Brunswick, Duchess Viktoria Luise of. Deutschlands Letzte Kaiserin. Goettingen: Goettinger Verlagsanstalt, 1971 [biography of Empress Auguste Viktoria]

                    Cordfunke, E.H.P. Zita: Kaiserin von Österreich, Königin von Ungarn. Vienna: Böhlau, 1986

                    Griesser-Pecar, Tamara. Zita: die Wahrheit uber Europas letzte Kaiserin. Bergisch Gladbach: G. Lubbe, 1985

                    Praschl-Bichler, Gabriele. Das Familienalbum von Kaiser Franz Joseph und Elisabeth. Wien: Ueberreuter, 1995

                    -----. Das Familienalbum von Kaiser Karl und Kaiserin Zita. Wien: Ueberreuter, 1996

                    Prussia, Prince Louis-Ferdinand of. Die Geschichte meines Lebens. Goettingen: Goettinger Verlagsanstalt, 1968 [autobiography of Prince Louis-Ferdinand]

                    Ritthaler, Anton. Die Hohenzollern. Moers: Steiger, 1979

                    Schad, Martha. Bayerns Königinnen, Regensburg: Verlag Friedrich Pustet, 1992

                    -----. Bayerns Königshaus: die Familiengeschichte der Wittlesbacher in Bildern. Regensburg:  Verlag Friedrich Pustet, 1994

                    -----. Das fürstliche Haus Thurn und Taxis: 300 Jahre Geschichte in Bildern. Regensburg: Verlag Friedrich Pustet, 1996

                    Schubert, Ludwig and Rolf Seelman-Eggebert. Europas Königshäuser. Koeln: vgs, 1991

                    von Schmettow, Dr. Count Matthias. Gedenkbuch des deutschen Adels. Limburg/Lahn: C.A. Starke Verlag, 1967 [Nachtrag (addendum), 1980] [memorial book of the German nobility; lists all nobles who fell in W.W.II]

                    von Studnitz, Major-Gen. Benno. Kurzer Abriss der Familiengeschichte derer von Studnitz. Breslau: C. Duelser, 1889 [von Studnitz family history & genealogy]

                    Ziehr, Wilhelm. Europas Fürstenhäuser.  Koeln: vgs, 1995

                    Italian-Language Books:
                    Bracalini, Romano & Maria Gabriella di Savoia & Michele Falzone del Barbaráo. Casa Savoia: diario di una monarchia. Milano: A. Mondadori,1996

                    Norwegian-Language Books:
                    Benkow, Jo. Olav: menneske og monark. Oslo: Gyldendal norsk forlag, 1991

                    Benkow, Jo & A.B. Wilse. Haakon, Maud & Olav: Et minnealbum i tekst og bilder. 1989

                    Greve, Tim. Haakon VII: menneske og monark. Oslo: Gyldendal, 1980

                    Möller, Arvid. Dronning Maud: et portrett. Oslo: J. W. Cappelens forlag, 1992

                    -----. Kronprinsesse Märtha: hustru, mor, medmenneske. Oslo: Cappelen, 1990

                    Rosenberg, Brita. Astrid: Prinsesse av Norge. 1988

                    Spanish-Language Books:
                    Anson, Luis María. Don Juan. Barcelona: Plaza y Janés Editores, 1994 [biography of Juan, Count of Barcelona, late father of King Juan Carlos of Spain]

                    Balansó, Juan. La Casa Real de Espana. 1985

                    -----. La Familia Real y la familia irreal. Barcelona: Editorial Planeta, 1992 [history & genealogy of the Spanish dynasty in all its branches]

                    -----. La Familia Rival. Barcelona: Editorial Planeta, 1994 [history & genealogy of the Bourbon-Parma family]

                    Urbano, Pilar. La Reina. Barcelona: Plaza y Janes, 1996 [interviews with Queen Sofia of Spain]

                    Vilallonga, José Luis de. El Rey. Barcelona: Plaza y Janes, 1993 [biography of Juan Carlos, King of Spain]

                    Swedish-Language Books:
                    Hammarsten, Charles and Elisabeth Tarras-Wahlberg. Victoria: Kronprinsessa av Sverige. 1995

                    II - Genealogies and Related Works

                    Danish-Language Books:
                    Aagaard, Bent. Kongernes Lysthus. Copenhagen: Hamlet, 1978

                    English-Language Books:
                    Burke's Royal Families of the World, Vol. 1, Europe and Latin America, London: Burke's Publishing Co., 1977

                    Burke's Royal Families of the World, Vol. 2, Africa and the Middle East, London: Burke's Publishing Co., 1980

                    A Genealogy of the Mohammedzai, the royal family of Afghanistan. 195-?

                    Royalty, Peerage & Nobility of Europe, 96th ed. of the Almanach de la Noblesse de France (in English), 1997

                    Addington, A.C. The Royal House of Stuart: the descendants of King James VI of Scotland, James I of England, 3 Vols. London: Skilton, 1969-1976

                    Brewer-Ward, Daniel. The House of Habsburg: a genealogy of the descendants of Empress Maria Theresia. Baltimore: Genealogical Pub. Co., 1996

                    Broek, Pieter. A Genealogy of the Romanov Dynasty from the Emperor Nicholas I to the present time.  London: Noble House Publications, 1994

                    Corfield, Justin J. The Royal Family of Cambodia. 2nd ed. Melbourne, Australia: The Khmer Language and Culture Center, 1993 [descendants of King Ang Eng of Cambodia, 1779-1796] 

                    Lake, Christopher. European Rulers 1060-1981: a cross-referenced genealogy with 162 pedigrees. 1981

                    Louda, Jirí and Michael Maclagan. Heraldry of the Royal Families of the World.  New York: Clarkson N. Potter, Inc., Publishers,  1981 [alternate title: Lines of Succession: heraldry of the royal families of the World. London: Macdonald;  New York: Macmillan; Toronto: Maxwell Macmillan Canada, 1991]

                    McNaughton, Arnold. The Book of Kings: a royal genealogy. New York: Quadrangle, 1973

                    Marquis of Ruvigny & Raineval. Titled Nobility of Europe: an international peerage, or "Who's who", of the sovereigns, princes and nobles of Europe. London: Harrison & Sons, 1914 [reprint ed. London: Burke's Publishing Co., 1980]

                    Paget, Gerald. The Lineage and Ancestry of HRH Prince Charles, Prince of Wales, 2 Vols. Edinburgh: Skilton, 1977

                    Reitwiesner, William Addams. The Lesbian Ancestors of Prince Rainier of Monaco, Dr. Otto von Habsburg, Brooke Shields, and the Marquis de Sade. Washington: W.A. Reitwiesner, 1995

                    -----. Matrilineal Descents of the European Royalty: a work in progress. Washington, D.C.: W.A. Reitwiesner, 1993

                    French-Language Books:
                    Almanach de Gotha (various editions, from 1763 to 1944)

                    Etat présent de la maison de Bourbon, Quatrième Edition, 1991 Anselme, Le Père. Histoire Généalogique et Chronologique de la Maison Royale de France, des Pairs, Grand Officiers de la Couronne et de la Maison du Roy et des Anciens Barons du Royaume.  Paris, 1726/32 [reprint 1991] 

                    Badts de Cugnac, Chantal de & Guy Coutant de Saisseval. Le Petit Gotha. Paris: Institut Henri V, 1993

                    Carretier, Christian. Les ancêtres de Louis XIV, 512 quartiers. Paris: Editions Christian, 1981

                    Cuny, Hubert & Nicole Dreneau. Le Gotha français: état présent des familles ducales et princières depuis 1940. Paris: L'Intermédiaire des chercheurs et curieux, 1989

                    Dugast Rouillé, Michel. Descendance, ascendance de Charles et Zita de Habsbourg, empereur et impératrice d'Autriche. Saint-Herblain (France): CID Editions, 1995

                    Duroselle, Geneviève & Denys Prache. Les rois de France. Paris: Hatier, 1995

                    Enache, Nicolas. La descendance de Marie Thérèse de Habsbourg, reine de Hongrie et de Bohême. 1996

                    -----. La descendance de Pierre le Grand, tsar de Russie. Paris: Sedopols, 1983

                    Ferrand, Jacques. Il est toujours des Romanov!: les Romanov en 1995. Paris:  J. Ferrand, 1995

                    Gmeline, Patrick de. Dictionnaire de la noblesse russe. Paris: Editions Contrepoint, 1978

                    Gouyé Martignac, Gérald & Michel Sementéry. La descendance de Joséphine, impératrice des Français. Paris: Editions Christian, 1994

                    Huberty, Michel, et. al. L'Allemagne Dynastique: les quinzes familles qui ont fait l'Empire, Tomes I à VIII. Le Perreux: A. Giraud, 1976 -

                    Kerrebrouck, Patrick Van. La Maison de Bourbon, 1256-1987: Nouvelle histoire généalogique de l'auguste Maison de France, sept volumes, Villeneuve d'Ascq, 1987

                    Le Hête, Thierry. Les comtes Palatins de Bourgogne et leur descendance agnatique: généalogie et histoire d'une dynastie sur huit siècles (IXème-XVIIème siècle). La Bonneville-sur-Iton: T. Le Hête, 1995

                    Manach, Daniel. La descendance de Louis-Philippe Ier, roi des Français. Paris:  Editions Christian, 1985

                    Parisot, Jacques & Nelly. La descendance de François-Joseph Ier, empereur d'Autriche. Paris: Editions Christian, 1984.

                    -----. La descendance de Guillaume Ier, empereur allemand, roi de Prusse. Paris: Editions Christian, 1987

                    Sementéry, Michel. La descendance de Nicolas Ier, roi de Monténégro. Paris: Editions Christian, 1985

                    Toumanoff, Cyrille. Catalogue de la noblesse titrée de l'Empire de Russie. Rome, 1982

                    -----. Les Dynasties de la Caucasie Chrétienne de l'Antiquité jusqu'au XIXe Siècle. Rome, 1990 Tulard, Jean. Napoléon et la noblesse d'Empire: avec la liste complète des membres de la noblesse impériale, 1808-1815. Paris: Tallandier, 1979

                    German-Language Books:
                    Genealogisches Handbuch des Adels.  Limburg/Lahn: C.A. Starke (various editions, 1951- )

                    Europaische Stammtafeln: Stammtafeln zur Geschichte der europaieschen Staaten (begun by Wilhelm Karl, Prinz zu Isenburg, continued by Frank, Baron Freytag von Loringhoven; new series by Detlev Schwennicke) Marburg: Stargardt, 1978-

                    Kneschke, Prof. Dr. Ernst Heinrich. Neues allgemeines Deutsches Adels-Lexicon (9 volumes). Leipzig: Friedrich Vogt, 1859-186- [reprint Neustadt/Aisch: Verlag fuer Kunstreproduktionen Christoph Schmidt, 1995] [comprehensive listing of all German noble families, living and extinct]

                    Posse, Otto. Die Wettiner: Genealogie des Gesamthauses. Leipzig, Berlin: Giesecke & Devrient, 1897 [reprint ed. Leipzig: Zentralantiquariat Leipzig, 1994]

                    Italian-Language Books:
                    Libro d'Oro Della Nobilità Italiano, Rome: Collego Araldico 1990-94 (ed. XX)

                    Spanish-Language Books:
                    Elenco de Grandezas y Titulos Nobiliarios Españ;oles, Madrid: Ediciones de la Revista Hidalguia, 1997

                    Sampedro, José Luis. La descendencia de don Alfonso XIII. 1991

                    Zorilla y Gonzales de Mendoz, Francisco Javier. Genealogia de la casa de Borbon de Españ;a. Madrid: Editora Nacional, 1971

                    Swedish-Language Books:
                    Rosvall, Ted. Bernadotte-Ättlingar, Ted Rosvall, Falköping, Sweden: Rosvall Royal Books, 1992

                    III - General

                    English-Language Books:
                    Constitutions of the Countries of the World: a series of updated texts, constitutional chronologies and annotated bibliographies. Dobbs Ferry, N.Y.: Oceana Publications, 1991. 19 volumes + supplements

                    The Europa World Year Book, London, England: Europa Publications Limited, 1989-

                    Gurney, Gene. Kingdoms of Asia, the Middle East, and Africa: an illustrated encyclopedia of ruling monarchs from ancient times to the present.  New York: Crown Publishers, 1986

                    -----. Kingdoms of Europe: an illustrated encyclopedia of ruling monarchs from ancient times to the present. New York: Crown Publishers, 1982

                    Michael, Prince of Greece. Crown Jewels of Britain and Europe. J.M. Dent, 1983 (Harper & Row, 1983; Crescent Books, 1986) Motley, Mark. Becoming a French Aristocrat: the education of the court nobility, 1580-1715. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1990

                    Pinches, John H. European Nobility and Heraldry: a comparative study of the titles of nobility and their heraldic exterior ornaments for each country, with historical notes. Ramsbury, Wiltshire: Heraldry Today, 1994

                    Sainty, Guy Stair. The Orders of Chivalry and Merit of the Bourbon Two Sicilies Dynasty. Madrid: S.M.O.C.S.G., 1989 [includes the history & genealogy of the royal family of the Two Sicilies]

                    Tapsell, R.F. Monarchs, Rulers, Dynasties and Kingdoms of the World. London: Thames & Huson, 1983

                    Twining, Lord. History of the Crown Jewels of Europe. Batsford, 1960

                    French-Language Books:
                    Texier, Alain. Qu'est-ce-que la noblesse?: annexes, textes et décisions jurisprudentielles, planches de blasons, lexique de droit nobiliaire, index pratique. Paris: Tallandier, 1988

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                    5. Lexicon.

                    The Lexicon (words associated with royalty and nobility and shown in eight languages) is now formatted using tables, which don't 'translate' well when viewed as a text document, therefore it is available for viewing at this URL: http://www.heraldica.org/faqs/lexicon.html

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